Walden: Economy

X Bibliographic Information

Walden: Economy

Chapters

Key

  • Black = Unchanged text through the Princeton Ed.
  • Gray = introduced in some versions as a change, assumed to be same as the base
  • Red = supplied text (interpolated, not in manuscripts)
  • Green = interlined in ink.
  • Olive = interlined in pencil.
  • Strikethrough = cancelled text.

List of Versions

  • Princeton_Ed: Princeton Ed. of Walden
  • Version_A: Walden, Version A (1847)
  • Version_B: Walden, Version B (1849)
  • Version_C: Walden, Version C (1849)
  • Version_D: Walden, Version D (1852)
  • Version_E: Walden, Version E (late 1852 - 1853)
  • Version_F: Walden, Version F (1853-1854)
  • Version_G: Walden, Version G (1854)

Report an Issue

Publication Details:

Published by Walden: Fluid Text is published by Digital Thoreau at The State University of New York College at Geneseo..

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

XVersion
Economy n
Note: There is no chapter title. The leaves of the manuscript are numbered from 1 to 51 in the upper right hand corner of the recto of each odd-numbered leaf. Several unnumbered leaves were added after or deleted before the pages were numbered. (R. Clapper)
n
Note: The chapter title was inserted at the top of the leaf in C that contains the opening paragraph. The combined leaves of B and C are numbered from 1 to 123 in the upper right hand corner of the recto of each odd-numbered leaf. Several unnumbered leaves were deleted from the manuscript before the pages were numbered. A few leaves from A were not recopied but inserted among the leaves of B-C and renumbered to fit the new sequence. A half-dozen leaves from the early stages of D were also sumbered to fit the sequence. (R. Clapper)
1
Economy 1 written: C

(Ronald Clapper)
At the time When I wrote the following pages were written or rather the bulk of them, When I wrote the following pages, or rather the bulk of them, When I wrote the following pages, or rather the bulk of them, When I wrote the following pages, or rather the bulk of them, When I wrote the following pages, or rather the bulk of them, When I wrote the following pages, or rather the bulk of them, I lived alone, in the woods, a mile from any neighbor, in a house of my own building which I had built myself, which I had built myself, which I had built myself, which I had built myself, which I had built myself, which I had built myself, on the shore of Walden Pond, in Concord, Massachusetts, and earned my living by the labor of my hands exclusively only. only. only. only. only. only. I lived there two years and two months. At present I am a sojourner in civilized life again.
2a
Economy 2a written: A rewritten: C, C

(Ronald Clapper)
I should not presume to talk so much about myself and my affairs as I shall in this lecture book work book presume to talk so much about myself and my affairs as I shall in this lecture book work book obtrude myself and my affairs so much on the notice of my readers obtrude my affairs so much on the notice of my readers obtrude my affairs so much on the notice of my readers obtrude my affairs so much on the notice of my readers obtrude my affairs so much on the notice of my readers obtrude my affairs so much on the notice of my readers if very particular and personal particular particular particular particular particular particular particular inquiries had not been made by my townsmen by my townsmen by my townsmen by my townsmen by my townsmen by my townsmen concerning my mode of life, what what what which which which which which which some would call impertinent, but they are by no means impertinent to me, but on the contrary very natural and pertinent, considering the circumstances . but they are by no means impertinent to me, but on the contrary very natural and pertinent, considering the circumstances . though they do not appear to me at all impertinent to me, but on the contrary considering the circumstances very natural and pertinent , considering the circumstances. though they do not appear to me at all impertinent, but, considering the circumstances, very natural and pertinent. though they do not appear to me at all impertinent, but, considering the circumstances, very natural and pertinent. though they do not appear to me at all impertinent, but, considering the circumstances, very natural and pertinent. though they do not appear to me at all impertinent, but, considering the circumstances, very natural and pertinent. though they do not appear to me at all impertinent, but, considering the circumstances, very natural and pertinent. Some have wished to know wished to know wished to know asked asked asked asked asked asked what I got to eat; if I did not feel kind o’ lonesome; kind o’ lonesome; kind o’ lonesome; lonesome; lonesome; lonesome; lonesome; lonesome; if I was not afraid—what I should do if I were taken sick; afraid—what I should do if I were taken sick; afraid—what I should do if I were taken sick; afraid afraid afraid afraid afraid and the like. Others have been inquisitive to know curious to learn curious to learn curious to learn curious to learn curious to learn curious to learn curious to learn what portion of my income I devoted to charitable purposes; and and and and and and and and some, who have large families, how many poor children I maintained. Some have not come to my house because I lived there. Others have come—Because I lived there—and others again, Because I lived there. After I lectured here to my townsmen last winter I heard that some had expected that I would answer some of these questions in my lecture. maintained. maintained. maintained. maintained. maintained. maintained. maintained. So I must ask all strangers and all who have little or no interest in me in this audience among my readers So I must ask all strangers and all who have little or no interest in me in this audience among my readers So I will therefore ask all strangers, and those of my readers who feel no interest in me among my readers I will therefore ask those of my readers who feel no particular interest in me I will therefore ask those of my readers who feel no particular interest in me I will therefore ask those of my readers who feel no particular interest in me I will therefore ask those of my readers who feel no particular interest in me I will therefore ask those of my readers who feel no particular interest in me to pardon me if I undertake to answer them in part now. I warn you that I shall brag a good deal more than is according to the rules of good taste—shall brag for you as well as for myself—trusting that God will grant me an eternity to fulfill some things in. Taste and I parted company long ago. them in part now. I warn you that I shall brag a good deal more than is according to the rules of good taste—shall brag for you as well as for myself—trusting that God will grant me an eternity to fulfill some things in. Taste and I parted company long ago. r
Revision note: C1: these questions in part now. I warn you that I shall brag a good deal more than is according to the received rules of good taste—shall brag for you as well as for myself.
some of these questions in part now this book.
some of these questions in this book. some of these questions in this book. some of these questions in this book. some of these questions in this book. some of these questions in this book.
In most lectures or and stories books lectures or and stories books r
Revision note: C1: lectures and books
books, and lectures
books, books, books, books, books,
the I , or first person, is omitted; in this it will be inserted inserted r
Revision note: C1: inserted
inserted retained;
retained; retained; retained; retained; retained;
that, in respect to egotism, is the main difference. We are not apt to are not apt to r
Revision note: C1: are not apt to do not usually
commonly do not usually
commonly do not commonly do not commonly do not commonly do not commonly do not
remember that it is, after all, always the first person that is speaking. 2b
Economy 2b written: B rewritten: C, C
B: “I should not talk so much … narrowness of my experience” was interlined in pencil in B, copied in C and recopied when a fair copy was made of all of Economy 2b.

(Ronald Clapper)
I should not talk so much about myself if there were any body else whom I knew as well. I am unluckily Unfortunately I am unluckily Unfortunately, I am Unfortunately, I am Unfortunately, I am Unfortunately, I am Unfortunately, I am confined to this theme by the narrowness of my experience. I, Moreover I for my own part, Moreover, I, on my side, Moreover, I, on my side, Moreover, I, on my side, Moreover, I, on my side, Moreover, I, on my side, require of a writer or lecturer that he give me, a every writer that he give me, every writer, first or last, every writer, first or last, every writer, first or last, every writer, first or last, every writer, first or last, a simple and sincere account of his own life, what he has done and thought, whatever that may have been and not so much and not so much rather than and not merely and not merely and not merely and not merely and not merely what he has heard of other men’s lives; some such account as he would send to his kindred from a distant land; and and for for for for for for if he has lived sincerely, it must have been in a distant land to me, —describing even his outward circumstances and what adventures he has had, as well as his thoughts and feelings about them—I want him to that he give me that which is most precious to him, not his life’s blood but even that for which his life’s blood circulated—what he has got by living. If anything has yielded him pure pleasure or instruction, let him communicate it. Let the money-getter tell us how much he loves wealth, and what means he takes to accumulate it. He must describe those facts which he knows and loves better than any body else— He must should not write on Foreign Missions. The mechanic will naturally write about his trade, the farmer about his farm, and every man about that which he, compared to other men, understands better than other men others. Yet incredible mistakes are made. I have heard an owl lecture with a perverse show of learning upon on the solar microscope, and Chanticlere upon on nebulous stars, when both ought to should naturally have been sound asleep, the one in a hollow tree, the other upon his roost. me—describing even his outward circumstances and what adventures he has had, as well as his thoughts and feelings about them. If anything has yielded him pleasure or instruction, let him communicate it. Let the money-getter when he takes up the pen tell us how he loves wealth, and what means he takes to accumulate it. He should not write on Foreign Missions. The mechanic will naturally write about his trade, the farmer about his farm, and every man about that which he understands better than others —that is, his own affairs. Yet incredible mistakes are made. I have heard an owl lecture with a perverse show of learning on the solar microscope, and Chanticlere on nebulous stars, when both should naturally have been sound asleep, the one in a hollow tree, the other upon his roost me. me. me. me. me. 2c
Economy 2c written: A rewritten: B, C, C
C: Two fair copies were made of Economy 2c.

(Ronald Clapper)
Perhaps this lecture book is this n
Note: space left blank during original copying (R. Clapper)
lecture is
r
Revision note: C1: this lecture volume is
this volume is these pages are
these pages are these pages are these pages are these pages are these pages are
more particularly addressed to the class of poor students. the class of poor students. r
Revision note: C1: the class of poor students.
the class of poor students
poor students. poor students. poor students. poor students. poor students.
As for the rest of my audience readers, n
Note: space left blank during original copying (R. Clapper)
audience,
audience readers, readers, readers, readers, readers, readers,
they will accept such r
Revision note: C1: portions of it
portions of it
r
Revision note: C1: portions of it
portions of it
r
Revision note: C1: portions of it
portions of it
portions portions portions portions portions
as apply to them. I trust that none will stretch the seams in putting on the coat, for it may be of be of r
Revision note: C1: be of
be of do
do do do do do
good service to him whom it fits.
3a
Economy 3a written: C rewritten: C

(Ronald Clapper)
I wish to would fain would fain would fain would fain would fain would fain say something, not so much concerning the Chinese and Sandwich Islanders r
Revision note: C1: as concerning
as concerning
as as as as as
you who n
Note: space left blank during original copying (R. Clapper)
hear this lecture read this book read these pages,
read these pages, read these pages, read these pages, read these pages, read these pages,
who are said to live in New England; something about your condition, especially your outward condition or circumstances in this world, in this n
Note: space left blank during original copying (R. Clapper)
city town,
town, town, town, town, town,
what it is, whether it is necessary that it r
Revision note: C1: should be
should be
be be be be be
as bad as it is, whether it cannot be improved as well as not. 3b
Economy 3b written: A rewritten: B, C
B & C: A fair copy was made of only“ I have travelled … hanging suspended, with their heads”.
B: A fair copy was apparently made of the rest of Economy 3b and Economy 4 on a leaf (#7) now missing.

(Ronald Clapper)
I have travelled a good deal in Concord; and every where, in shops, and offices, and fields, the inhabitants have seemed seemed seemed appeared appeared appeared appeared appeared appeared to me to be doing penance in a thousand curious curious curious remarkable remarkable remarkable remarkable remarkable remarkable ways. What I had have have have have have have have have heard of Brahmins standing on one leg on the tops of pillars, looking in the face of the sun, dwelling at the roots of trees sitting exposed to four fires or hanging suspended with their heads downward over flames or looking at the heavens over their shoulders “until it is becomes impossible for them to resume their natural position, while from the twist of the neck nothing but liquids can pass into the stomach” or dwelling chained for life at the foot of a tree or measuring with their bodies like caterpillars the breadth of a vast empire or of devotees standing on one leg on the tops of pillars—even these forms of conscious penance are not more incredible and astonishing than the scenes which I daily witness. sitting exposed to four fires and looking in the face of the sun; or hanging suspended, with their heads downward, over flames; or looking at the heavens over their shoulders “until it becomes impossible for them to resume their natural position, while from the twist of the neck nothing but liquids can pass into the stomach;” or dwelling, chained for life, at the foot of a tree; or measuring with their bodies, like caterpillars, the breadth of vast empires; or standing on one leg on the tops of pillars,—even these forms of conscious penance are hardly more incredible and astonishing than the scenes which I daily witness. sitting exposed to four fires and looking in the face of the sun; or hanging suspended, with their heads downward, over flames; or looking at the heavens over their shoulders “until it becomes impossible for them to resume their natural position, while from the twist of the neck nothing but liquids can pass into the stomach;” or dwelling, chained for life, at the foot of a tree; or measuring with their bodies, like caterpillars, the breadth of vast empires; or standing on one leg on the tops of pillars,—even these forms of conscious penance are hardly more incredible and astonishing than the scenes which I daily witness. sitting exposed to four fires and looking in the face of the sun; or hanging suspended, with their heads downward, over flames; or looking at the heavens over their shoulders “until it becomes impossible for them to resume their natural position, while from the twist of the neck nothing but liquids can pass into the stomach;” or dwelling, chained for life, at the foot of a tree; or measuring with their bodies, like caterpillars, the breadth of vast empires; or standing on one leg on the tops of pillars,—even these forms of conscious penance are hardly more incredible and astonishing than the scenes which I daily witness. sitting exposed to four fires and looking in the face of the sun; or hanging suspended, with their heads downward, over flames; or looking at the heavens over their shoulders “until it becomes impossible for them to resume their natural position, while from the twist of the neck nothing but liquids can pass into the stomach;” or dwelling, chained for life, at the foot of a tree; or measuring with their bodies, like caterpillars, the breadth of vast empires; or standing on one leg on the tops of pillars,—even these forms of conscious penance are hardly more incredible and astonishing than the scenes which I daily witness. sitting exposed to four fires and looking in the face of the sun; or hanging suspended, with their heads downward, over flames; or looking at the heavens over their shoulders “until it becomes impossible for them to resume their natural position, while from the twist of the neck nothing but liquids can pass into the stomach;” or dwelling, chained for life, at the foot of a tree; or measuring with their bodies, like caterpillars, the breadth of vast empires; or standing on one leg on the tops of pillars,—even these forms of conscious penance are hardly more incredible and astonishing than the scenes which I daily witness. sitting exposed to four fires and looking in the face of the sun; or hanging suspended, with their heads downward, over flames; or looking at the heavens over their shoulders “until it becomes impossible for them to resume their natural position, while from the twist of the neck nothing but liquids can pass into the stomach;” or dwelling, chained for life, at the foot of a tree; or measuring with their bodies, like caterpillars, the breadth of vast empires; or standing on one leg on the tops of pillars,—even these forms of conscious penance are hardly more incredible and astonishing than the scenes which I daily witness. sitting exposed to four fires and looking in the face of the sun; or hanging suspended, with their heads downward, over flames; or looking at the heavens over their shoulders “until it becomes impossible for them to resume their natural position, while from the twist of the neck nothing but liquids can pass into the stomach;” or dwelling, chained for life, at the foot of a tree; or measuring with their bodies, like caterpillars, the breadth of vast empires; or standing on one leg on the tops of pillars,—even these forms of conscious penance are hardly more incredible and astonishing than the scenes which I daily witness. even the The The The The The The The twelve labors of Hercules are nothing in comparison with those which my neighbors have undertaken; were trifling in comparison with those which my neighbors have undertaken; were trifling in comparison with those which my neighbors have undertaken; were trifling in comparison with those which my neighbors have undertaken; were trifling in comparison with those which my neighbors have undertaken; were trifling in comparison with those which my neighbors have undertaken; were trifling in comparison with those which my neighbors have undertaken; were trifling in comparison with those which my neighbors have undertaken; for they were only twelve, and had an end; but I could never see that these men slew or captured any monster or finished any labor. They have no friend Iolas to burn with a hot iron the root of the hydra’s head, but as soon as one head is crushed, two spring up.
4
Economy 4 written: A

(Ronald Clapper)
I see young men, my townsmen, whose misfortune it is to have inherited farms, houses, barns, cattle, and farming tools; for these are easier more easily more easily more easily more easily more easily more easily more easily more easily acquired than got rid of. Better if they had been born in the open pasture and suckled by a wolf, that they might have seen with clear eye clearer eyes clearer eyes clearer eyes clearer eyes clearer eyes clearer eyes clearer eyes what field they were called to labor in. Who made them serfs of the soil? Why should they eat their sixty acres, when man is condemned to eat only his peck of dirt? Why should they begin digging their graves as soon as they are born? They have got to live a man’s life, pushing all these things before them , or farm with all its fixtures therein them , or farm with all its fixtures therein them, them, them, them, them, them, and get on as well as they can. How many a poor immortal soul have I met well nigh crushed and smothered under its load, creeping down the road of life, pushing before it a barn seventy-five feet by four, its Augean stables never cleansed, and one hundred acres of land, tillage, mowing, pasture, and wood-lot! How many a poor immortal soul have I met well nigh crushed and smothered under its load, creeping down the road of life, pushing before it a barn seventy-five feet by four, its Augean stables never cleansed, and one hundred acres of land, tillage, mowing, pasture, and wood-lot! How many a poor immortal soul have I met well nigh crushed and smothered under its load, creeping down the road of life, pushing before it a barn seventy-five feet by four, its Augean stables never cleansed, and one hundred acres of land, tillage, mowing, pasture, and wood-lot! How many a poor immortal soul have I met well nigh crushed and smothered under its load, creeping down the road of life, pushing before it a barn seventy-five feet by four, its Augean stables never cleansed, and one hundred acres of land, tillage, mowing, pasture, and wood-lot! How many a poor immortal soul have I met well nigh crushed and smothered under its load, creeping down the road of life, pushing before it a barn seventy-five feet by four, its Augean stables never cleansed, and one hundred acres of land, tillage, mowing, pasture, and wood-lot! How many a poor immortal soul have I met well nigh crushed and smothered under its load, creeping down the road of life, pushing before it a barn seventy-five feet by four, its Augean stables never cleansed, and one hundred acres of land, tillage, mowing, pasture, and wood-lot! How many a poor immortal soul have I met well nigh crushed and smothered under its load, creeping down the road of life, pushing before it a barn seventy-five feet by four, its Augean stables never cleansed, and one hundred acres of land, tillage, mowing, pasture, and wood-lot! The portionless, who struggle with no such unnecessary inherited outward unnecessary inherited unnecessary inherited unnecessary inherited unnecessary inherited unnecessary inherited unnecessary inherited unnecessary inherited encumbrances, find it labor enough to subdue and cultivate a few cubic feet of flesh.
5a
Economy 5a written: A rewritten: B

(Ronald Clapper)
But men labor under a mistake. The better part of the man is soon ploughed into the soil for compost. By an apparent fate, soon an apparent a seeming fate, soon commonly a seeming fate, commonly a seeming fate, commonly a seeming fate, commonly a seeming fate, commonly a seeming fate, commonly a seeming fate, commonly called necessity, they are employed, as it says in an old book, laying up treasures which moth and rust will corrupt and thieves break through and steal. It is a fool’s life, as they will find when they get to the end of it, if not before. if not before. if not before. if not before. if not before. if not before. 5b
Economy 5b written: C
C: Economy 5b was added on a partial leaf. “Inde genus durum sumus … not seeing where they fell” was interlined.

(Ronald Clapper)
It is said that It is said that It is said that It is said that It is said that It is said that Deucalion and Pyrrha created men by throwing stones over their heads behind them. Thence we are a hard race and inured to labor; and give evidence from what origin we have sprung. But that was not the best way to create men—or rather, they were not the best kind of men to create nor the best material to create men out of. They might, at least, have seen where they threw the stones. According to Ovid :— them:— them:— them:— them:— them:—
 
Inde genus durum sumus, experiensque laborum,
 
Et documenta damus quâ simus origine nati.
Or, as Sir Walter Raleigh Raleigh Raleigh Raleigh Raleigh Raleigh rhymes it in his sonorous way ,— in his sonorous way,— in his sonorous way,— in his sonorous way,— in his sonorous way,— in his sonorous way,—
 
“From thence our kind hard-hearted is, enduring pain and care,
 
Approving that our bodies of a stony nature are.”
But perhaps they did not rightly interpret the oracle which directed them to cast behind them the bones of their grandmothers—by which may have been signified it may have meant the institutions of the dead. At any rate, men must be recreated after a different fashion. They might at least have seen where they threw the stones. So much for a stupid blind obedience to a blind blundering oracle So much for a blind obedience to a blundering oracle, throwing the stones over their heads behind them, and not seeing where they fell. So much for a blind obedience to a blundering oracle, throwing the stones over their heads behind them, and not seeing where they fell. So much for a blind obedience to a blundering oracle, throwing the stones over their heads behind them, and not seeing where they fell. So much for a blind obedience to a blundering oracle, throwing the stones over their heads behind them, and not seeing where they fell. So much for a blind obedience to a blundering oracle, throwing the stones over their heads behind them, and not seeing where they fell.
6
Economy 6 written: A rewritten: B
A & B: “The finest qualities of our nature … one another thus tenderly” does not appear in A or in the original copying of B but was interlined in B.

(Ronald Clapper)
Most men, even in this comparatively free country, even in this comparatively free country, even in this comparatively free country, even in this comparatively free country, even in this comparatively free country, even in this comparatively free country, even in this comparatively free country, even in this comparatively free country, through mere ignorance and mistake, are so occupied with the factitious cares and superfluously superfluously superfluously superfluously superfluously superfluously superfluously superfluously coarse labors of life that its finer fruits cannot be plucked by them. Their fingers, from excessive toil, are too clumsy and tremble too much for that. The finest qualities of our nature are as difficult to preserve as the down on a peach. Their fingers, from excessive toil, are too clumsy and tremble too much for that. Their fingers, from excessive toil, are too clumsy and tremble too much for that. Their fingers, from excessive toil, are too clumsy and tremble too much for that. Their fingers, from excessive toil, are too clumsy and tremble too much for that. Their fingers, from excessive toil, are too clumsy and tremble too much for that. Their fingers, from excessive toil, are too clumsy and tremble too much for that. Their fingers, from excessive toil, are too clumsy and tremble too much for that. Actually, the laboring man has not leisure for a lofty and serene lofty and serene high true true true true true true true integrity day by day; he cannot afford to sustain the noblest relations; truest and noblest manliest relations to men manliest relations to men; manliest relations to men; manliest relations to men; manliest relations to men; manliest relations to men; manliest relations to men; his labor would depreciate depreciate be depreciated be depreciated be depreciated be depreciated be depreciated be depreciated be depreciated in the market. He has no time to be any thing but a machine. How can he remember well his ignorance— and this which which which which which which which which his growth requires—who has so often to use his knowledge? We should feed and clothe and recruit him with our cordials before we judge of him We should feed and clothe him gratuitously sometimes and recruit him with our cordials before we judge of him. We should feed and clothe him gratuitously sometimes, and recruit him with our cordials, before we judge of him. We should feed and clothe him gratuitously sometimes, and recruit him with our cordials, before we judge of him. We should feed and clothe him gratuitously sometimes, and recruit him with our cordials, before we judge of him. We should feed and clothe him gratuitously sometimes, and recruit him with our cordials, before we judge of him. We should feed and clothe him gratuitously sometimes, and recruit him with our cordials, before we judge of him. We should feed and clothe him gratuitously sometimes, and recruit him with our cordials, before we judge of him. The finest qualities of our nature, like the bloom on fruits, can be preserved only by the most delicate handling. But Yet But Yet Yet Yet Yet Yet Yet Yet we do not treat ourselves nor one another thus tenderly.
7
Economy 7 written: A rewritten: B, C
C: A fair copy was made of only “curry favor, to get custom … no matter how much or how little”.

(Ronald Clapper)
Some of you who hear me who read this, you, you, you, you, you, you, you, we all know, are poor, find it hard to live, are sometimes, as it were, gasping for breath. I have no doubt that some of you who are here tonight read this n
Note: space left blank during original copying (R. Clapper)
read this book
read this book read this book read this book read this book read this book read this book
are unable to pay for all the dinners which which which which which which which you have actually eaten, or for the coats and shoes which are fast wearing or are are are are are are are are already worn out, and have come here to this page n
Note: space left blank during original copying (R. Clapper)
to this page
to this page to this page to this page to this page to this page to this page
to spend borrowed time, borrowed stolen time, which is not your own, borrowed or stolen time, borrowed or stolen time, borrowed or stolen time, borrowed or stolen time, borrowed or stolen time, borrowed or stolen time, robbing your creditors of an hour. It is very evident what mean and sneaking lives many of you live, for I have had some experience of it myself for my sight is whetted by experience; for my sight has been whetted by experience; for my sight has been whetted by experience; for my sight has been whetted by experience; for my sight has been whetted by experience; for my sight has been whetted by experience; for my sight has been whetted by experience; for my sight has been whetted by experience; always on the limits, trying to get into business and trying to get out of debt, a very ancient slough, called by the Latins, æs alienum , another’s brass, for some of their coins were made of brass; still living, and dying, and buried by this other’s brass though some of you it must be allowed have enough of the brass of irreverence of your own to live by; brass; brass; brass; brass; brass; brass; brass; always promising to pay, promising to pay, to-morrow, and dying to-day, insolvent; seeking to curry favor, to get custom, by how many modes, only not state-prison offences; lying, flattering, voting, contracting yourselves into a nutshell of civility, or dilating into an atmosphere of thin and vaporous generosity, that you may persuade your neighbor to let you make his shoes, or his hat, or his coat, or his carriage, or import his groceries for him; making yourselves sick, that you may lay up something against a sick day, something to be tucked away in an old chest, or in a stocking behind the plastering, or, more safely, in the brick or the stone brick or the stone brick brick brick brick brick brick bank; no matter where, no matter how much or how little.
8a
Economy 8a written: A rewritten: B. C, D

(Ronald Clapper)
I sometimes wonder how how how that that that that that that we can be so frivolous, almost, almost, almost I may almost say, I may almost say, I may almost say, I may almost say, I may almost say, I may almost say, as to attend to the gross form of form of form of but somewhat foreign form of servitude called but somewhat foreign form of servitude called but somewhat foreign form of servitude called but somewhat foreign form of servitude called but somewhat foreign form of servitude called but somewhat foreign form of servitude called Negro Slavery, there are so many keen and subtle masters that enslave both north and south. It is bad bad hard hard hard hard hard hard to have a southern overseer; it is worse to have a northern one; but worst of all when you are yourself the slave-driver. yourself the slave-driver the slave-driver of yourself. the slave-driver of yourself. the slave-driver of yourself. the slave-driver of yourself. the slave-driver of yourself. the slave-driver of yourself. the slave-driver of yourself. Talk of a divinity in man! Look at the teamster on the highway, wending to market by day or night; Is he a son of the morning—fearless because immortal—greeting the sun and stars as his fellows and bounding with youthful & elastic steps over his mother earth? How much of divinity is there in him? Is he a son of the morning—fearless because immortal—greeting the sun and stars as his fellows, and bounding with youthful and elastic steps over his mother Earth? How much of divinity is there in him? does the divinity stir in within him. He rolls out of his cradle into a Tom & Jerry & goes at once to look after his team to fodder and water his horses without standing agape at his position. What are life immortal and the destiny of man compared with the shipping interests? What does he care for his creator, doesn’t he drive for Squire Make a stir? does any divinity stir within him? He rolls out of his cradle into a Tom-and-Jerry, and goes at once to look after his team For the most part he knows no higher duty than His highest duty to fodder and water his horses without standing agape at his position He is not half horse, half something more; he is merely a horse and a half to the others . What are life immortal and the destiny of man is his destiny to him compared with the shipping interests? What does he care for his creator? Does not he drive for Squire Make-a-stir? does any divinity stir within him? His highest duty to fodder and water his horses! What is his destiny to him compared with the shipping interests? Does not he drive for Squire Make-a-stir? does any divinity stir within him? His highest duty to fodder and water his horses! What is his destiny to him compared with the shipping interests? Does not he drive for Squire Make-a-stir? does any divinity stir within him? His highest duty to fodder and water his horses! What is his destiny to him compared with the shipping interests? Does not he drive for Squire Make-a-stir? does any divinity stir within him? His highest duty to fodder and water his horses! What is his destiny to him compared with the shipping interests? Does not he drive for Squire Make-a-stir? does any divinity stir within him? His highest duty to fodder and water his horses! What is his destiny to him compared with the shipping interests? Does not he drive for Squire Make-a-stir? How godlike, how immortal, is he? Very like a God! He feels so cheap that he could lick the dust under his feet. is he? Very like a god! is he? is he? is he? is he? is he? is he? See how he cowers and sneaks, how vaguely and indefinitely vaguely and indefinitely vaguely and indefinitely vaguely vaguely vaguely vaguely vaguely all the day he fears, not being immortal nor divine, but the slave and prisoner of his own opinion of himself, a fame won by his own deeds. Public opinion is a weak tyrant compared with our own our own our own our own our own our own private opinion. What a man thinks of himself, that it is which determines determines, or rather indicates, determines, or rather indicates, determines, or rather indicates, determines, or rather indicates, determines, or rather indicates, determines, or rather indicates, determines, or rather indicates, his fate. Self-emancipation even in the West Indian provinces of the fancy and imagination,—what Wilberforce is there to bring that about? Self-emancipation even in the West Indian provinces of the fancy and imagination, —what Wilberforce is there to bring that about? Self-emancipation even in the West Indian provinces of the fancy and imagination, —what Wilberforce is there to bring that about? Self-emancipation even in the West Indian provinces of the fancy and imagination, —what Wilberforce is there to bring that about? Self-emancipation even in the West Indian provinces of the fancy and imagination, —what Wilberforce is there to bring that about? Self-emancipation even in the West Indian provinces of the fancy and imagination, —what Wilberforce is there to bring that about? Self-emancipation even in the West Indian provinces of the fancy and imagination, —what Wilberforce is there to bring that about? 8b
Economy 8b written: D

(Ronald Clapper)
And Think also of Think, also, of Think, also, of Think, also, of Think, also, of the ladies of the land weaving toilet cushions against the last day, not to betray too green an interest in their fates! As if you could kill time without injuring eternity.
9a
Economy 9a written: D

(Ronald Clapper)
The mass of mankind men men men men men lead lives of quiet desperation. What is called resignation is confirmed desperation. From the desperate city you go into the desperate country, and have to console yourself with the bravery of minks and muskrats. 9b
Economy 9b written: D
D: Economy 9b precedes Economy 9a.

(Ronald Clapper)
A stereotyped but unconscious despair is concealed even even even even even under what are called the games and amusements of mankind. There is no play in them, for this comes after work.I remember to have met once a particularly wretched man in our own streets, asking for a lodging, whom it was almost no pleasure to befriend he so was hopeless. He had come all the way from New York on foot, seeking work, but he did not know where he was at any time, only, perchance, that he had travelled thirty miles that day, when three would have done as well. He thought that he had seriously injured himself by lying out, but he was more seriously injured before. He could do work about a stable, but declared in a disconsolate voice, that there was no work for him, as if the fates had a spite against him. I saw by his face that he was only a more desperate man than usual, whose whole life was a crime, who was endeavoring to escape from himself, but for once, derived no amusement from the method which he had chosen. He thought that nobody wished to employ him nor would respect him, because he knew that he was unworthy to be employed, and did not respect himself; and thus he had come two hundred and fifty miles in a straight line, with desperate steps, offering himself, with a down look, anticipating failure, to do stable work at such stable yards as this path happened to intersect, doing his part as he would fain have believed, toward getting work; but the truth was, he merely wished to convince the fates that he was willing to do his part, when he was not. And so, judging from his direction, he would go on, if his constitution held out, to the Gulf of St Lawrence, where he would probably jump in. I knew very well that he was not the only man who had not succeeded in getting work. work. work. work. work. But it is the sum of all a characteristic of a characteristic of a characteristic of a characteristic of wisdom not to do desperate things.
10a
Economy 10a written: A rewritten: A, B, D

(Ronald Clapper)
When we consider in the words of the catechism, what what to use the words of the catechism,what what, to use the words of the catechism, what, to use the words of the catechism, what, to use the words of the catechism, what, to use the words of the catechism, what, to use the words of the catechism, what, to use the words of the catechism, is the chief end of man, and what are what are what are what are what are what are what are what are the true true true true true true true true necessaries and the means means means means means means means means of life, it appears as if men had deliberately chosen this the common the common the common the common the common the common the common the common mode of living preferring preferring because they preferred because they preferred because they preferred because they preferred because they preferred because they preferred it to any other. to any other. to any other. to any other. to any other. to any other. to any other. to any other. but not so; they really think that but not so; they really think that but not so; they really think that Yet not so; they honestly think Yet they honestly think Yet they honestly think Yet they honestly think Yet they honestly think there is no choice left. Butit is not necessarily, it was not always so; But But But But But But But alert and healthy natures remember that the sun rose clear. It is never too late to give up our prejudices. No way of doing or thinking, thinking or doing, thinking or doing, thinking or doing, thinking or doing, thinking or doing, thinking or doing, thinking or doing, however ancient, can be trusted without proof. without proof. without proof. without proof. without proof. without proof. without proof. What every body echoes or in silence passes by as true to-day may turn out to be sheer falsehood sheer falsehood sheer falsehood sheer falsehood falsehood falsehood falsehood falsehood to-morrow, mere smoke of opinion falling back in cinders, opinion falling back in cinders, opinion falling back in cinders, opinion falling back in cinders, opinion, opinion, opinion, opinion, which some had trusted for a cloud that would sprinkle fertile fertile fertile fertile fertilizing fertilizing fertilizing fertilizing fertilizing rain r
Revision note: A1: upon
upon on
on on on on on on on
their fields. What old people say you cannot do you try and find that you can. r
Revision note: A1: Old deeds for old people, and new deeds for new. Old people did not know enough once, perchance, to fetch fresh fuel to keep the fire a-going; new people put a little dry wood under a pot, and are whirled round the globe with the speed of birds, in a way to kill old people, as the phrase is. It is very true that they cannot but the same is very false when affirmed of you it may be that you can. The fact is old people are old and new people are new. Old deeds for old people and new deeds for new. Old people can hardly get upstairs. There are men in Typee who can walk up a tree 60 feet high and bare of branches. Old people did not know enough to fetch new fresh fuel to keep the fire agoing—new people put a little dry wood under a pot and are whirled round the world with the speed of birds
It is very true that they cannot—but it may be very false when affirmed to affirm the same of you. Old deeds for old people and new deeds for new. Old people can hardly walk up stairs,—in Typee the young men can walk up a smooth cocoa-nut tree 60 feet high & bare of branches—Old people did not know enough once to fetch fresh fuel to keep the fire agoing—New people put a little dry wood under a pot and are whirled round the world globe with the speed of birds as the phrase is “in a way to kill old people” ”in a way to kill old people” as the phrase is
Old deeds for old people, and new deeds for new ones. Old people can hardly walk up stairs. In Typee the young men can walk up a smooth cocoa-nut tree sixty feet high and bare of branches. Old people did not know enough once to fetch fresh fuel to keep the fire agoing—New people put a little dry wood under a pot, and are whirled round the globe with the speed of birds, in a way to kill old people, as the phrase is Old deeds for old people, and new deeds for new. Old people did not know enough once, perchance, to fetch fresh fuel to keep the fire a-going; new people put a little dry wood under a pot, and are whirled round the globe with the speed of birds, in a way to kill old people, as the phrase is. Old deeds for old people, and new deeds for new. Old people did not know enough once, perchance, to fetch fresh fuel to keep the fire a-going; new people put a little dry wood under a pot, and are whirled round the globe with the speed of birds, in a way to kill old people, as the phrase is. Old deeds for old people, and new deeds for new. Old people did not know enough once, perchance, to fetch fresh fuel to keep the fire a-going; new people put a little dry wood under a pot, and are whirled round the globe with the speed of birds, in a way to kill old people, as the phrase is. Old deeds for old people, and new deeds for new. Old people did not know enough once, perchance, to fetch fresh fuel to keep the fire a-going; new people put a little dry wood under a pot, and are whirled round the globe with the speed of birds, in a way to kill old people, as the phrase is. Old deeds for old people, and new deeds for new. Old people did not know enough once, perchance, to fetch fresh fuel to keep the fire a-going; new people put a little dry wood under a pot, and are whirled round the globe with the speed of birds, in a way to kill old people, as the phrase is. Old deeds for old people, and new deeds for new. Old people did not know enough once, perchance, to fetch fresh fuel to keep the fire a-going; new people put a little dry wood under a pot, and are whirled round the globe with the speed of birds, in a way to kill old people, as the phrase is.
r
Revision note: A1: Age seems
Age seems
Age seems Age is Age is Age is Age is Age is Age is
no better, hardly so well, qualified for an instructor as youth, for it has not profited so much as it has lost. Men have left off rum safely and imprisoning for debt, and chattel slavery in some places, and several other things, but they are not inclined to leave off hanging men because they have not got accustomed to that way of thinking. lost. lost. lost. lost. lost. lost. lost. 10b
Economy 10b written: D

(Ronald Clapper)
One may almost doubt if the wisest man has learned any thing of absolute value by living. Practically, the old have no very important advice to give the young, their own experience has been so partial, and their lives have been such miserable failures, for private reasons, as they must believe; and it may be that they have some faith left which belies that experience, and they are only less young than they were. 10c
Economy 10c written: D
D: Economy 10c and Economy 14 were added on the verso of a separate leaf. The recto of the leaf contains the following: “Architectural remains are beautiful commonly from association only. The American’s taste for architecture is like his taste for olives & wine & other foreign things. The too exquisitely cultured I avoid as I do the theatre. Their life lacks reality. They offer me wine instead of water. They are surrounded by things which can be bought.”

(Ronald Clapper)
I have lived some thirty odd thirty thirty thirty thirty years on this planet, and I have yet to hear the first syllable of valuable or even earnest advice from my seniors. They have told me nothing, and probably can tell me nothing cannot tell me any thing, cannot tell me any thing, cannot tell me any thing, cannot tell me any thing, cannot tell me any thing, to the purpose. There Here. Here Here Here Here is life, an experiment to to some extent to a great extent to a great extent to a great extent to a great extent to a great extent untried by me; & but but but but but it does not avail me that they have tried it. If I have any valuable experience any experience which I think valuable, any experience which I think valuable, any experience which I think valuable, any experience which I think valuable, any experience which I think valuable, I am sure to reflect that this my Mentors said nothing about.
11
Economy 11 written: A rewritten: B, D
A: Economy 11 was added, along with Economy 13b, on the verso of the partial leaf containing the fair copy of “that would sprinkle fertilizing rain … as it has lost” of Economy 10a.
B: The middle of a leaf is cut out. “One farmer says … in spite of every obstacle” should have appeared on the verso of this leaf.
A & B: A & B: Economy 11 is followed by Economy 83d.

(Ronald Clapper)
One farmer says to me, farmer says to me, farmer says to me, farmer says to me, farmer says to me, farmer says to me, farmer says to me, farmer says to me, “You cannot live on vegetable food solely, for it furnishes nothing to make bones with;” and so he he he he he he he religiously devotes a part of his day to supplying his system with the raw material of bones; all the while walking all the while he talks walking all the while he talks walking all the while he talks walking all the while he talks walking all the while he talks walking all the while he talks walking all the while he talks walking all the while he talks behind his oxen, whose whose whose who with which with which, with which, with which, with which, with vegetable-made bones, jerk him and his lumbering plough along through in spite of in spite of in spite of in spite of in spite of in spite of in spite of in spite of every obstacle. Some things are really necessaries of life in some circles, the most helpless and diseased, which in others are luxuries merely, and in others still are entirely unknown.
12
Economy 12 written: A rewritten: B, C, D
A & B: Economy 12-13a is preceded by Economy 13c.
C: A fair copy was made of only “ends of the fingers … what thou hast left undone”.

(Ronald Clapper)
The whole ground of human life seems to some to have been gone over before us by our before us by our before us by our before us by our by their by their by their by their by their predecessors, both the heights and the valleys, and all things to have been cared for. and all things to have been cared for. and all things to have been cared for. and all things to have been cared for. and all things to have been cared for. and all things to have been cared for. and all things to have been cared for. and all things to have been cared for. According to Evelyn, “the wise Solomon prescribed ordinances for the very distances of trees; and the Roman prætors have decided how often you may go into your neighbor’s land to gather the acorns which fall on it without trespass, and what share belongs to that neighbor. According to Evelyn, “the wise Solomon prescribed ordinances for the very distances of trees; and the Roman prætors have decided how often you may go into your neighbor’s land to gather the acorns which fall on it without trespass, and what share belongs to that neighbor. According to Evelyn, “the wise Solomon prescribed ordinances for the very distances of trees; and the Roman prætors have decided how often you may go into your neighbor’s land to gather the acorns which fall on it without trespass, and what share belongs to that neighbor. According to Evelyn, “the wise Solomon prescribed ordinances for the very distances of trees; and the Roman prætors have decided how often you may go into your neighbor’s land to gather the acorns which fall on it without trespass, and what share belongs to that neighbor. According to Evelyn, “the wise Solomon prescribed ordinances for the very distances of trees; and the Roman prætors have decided how often you may go into your neighbor’s land to gather the acorns which fall on it without trespass, and what share belongs to that neighbor. Hippocrates has even left directions how we should cut our nails; that is, even with the ends of the fingers, neither longer nor shorter. longer nor shorter. longer nor shorter nor longer. shorter nor longer. shorter nor longer. shorter nor longer. shorter nor longer. shorter nor longer. Even the Undoubtedly The Undoubtedly the Undoubtedly the Undoubtedly the Undoubtedly the Undoubtedly the Undoubtedly the very tedium and ennui which presumes presumes presumes presume presume presume presume presume presume to have exhausted the variety and the joys of life is is is are are are are are are as old as Adam. But man’s capacities have never been measured; nor are we to judge of what he can do by any precedents, so little has been tried. ” Whatever have been thy failures hitherto, “be not afflicted, my child, for who shall assign to thee what thou hast left undone? Whatever have been thy failures hitherto, “be not afflicted, my child, for who shall assign to thee what thou hast left undone? Whatever have been thy failures hitherto, “be not afflicted, my child, for who shall assign to thee what thou hast left undone? Whatever have been thy failures hitherto, “be not afflicted, my child, for who shall assign to thee what thou hast left undone? Whatever have been thy failures hitherto, “be not afflicted, my child, for who shall assign to thee what thou hast left undone? Whatever have been thy failures hitherto, “be not afflicted, my child, for who shall assign to thee what thou hast left undone?
13a
Economy 13a written: A rewritten: B, C, D

(Ronald Clapper)
We might try our lives by a thousand simple tests greatly to our advantage—by any natural fact—by this, for instance, that tests greatly to our advantage—by this, for instance, that tests; as for instance, that tests; as for instance, that tests; as for instance, that tests; as for instance, that tests; as for instance, that tests; as for instance, that the same sun that that which which which which which which which ripens my beans illumines at once a system of worlds worlds worlds earths earths earths earths earths earths like this this ours. ours. ours. ours. ours. ours. ours. If I had known known remembered remembered remembered remembered remembered remembered remembered this it would have prevented some mistakes. This was not the light in which I hoed them. The stars are the apexes of what singular singular singular wonderful wonderful wonderful wonderful wonderful wonderful triangles! What distant and various natures are perhaps beholding various natures are perhaps beholding different beings in the various mansions of the universe are contemplatingdifferent beings in the various mansions of the universe contemporary with us but for whom we have no name nor thought may be contemplating different beings in the various mansions of the universe may be are contemplating different beings in the various mansions of the universe are contemplating different beings in the various mansions of the universe are contemplating different beings in the various mansions of the universe are contemplating different beings in the various mansions of the universe are contemplating different beings in the various mansions of the universe are contemplating the same one at the same moment! The departing and the arriving spirit—the joyful and the sad—the innocent and happy child, & melancholy suicide, the northern farmer and the southern slave. These are trivial instances. How many yet more distant inhabitants of this universe may be contemplating this yonder fine twinkling star which I behold at the same time instant—an eye in Orion—an eye in Lyra—the eye of omniscience every where itself There is always the possibility of being thus related by our lives with the All & being one with it or of remaining as it were an isolated particle in the universe n
Note: A later version of this passage was interlined in Economy 15. (R. Clapper)
moment! The departing and the arriving spirit—the joyful and the sad—the innocent and happy child, & the melancholy suicide, the northern farmer and the southern slave. These are trivial instances. How many yet infinitely more distant and different beings may be contemplating yonder fine twinkling star point at this moment—an eye in Orion—an eye in Lyra—the eye of omniscience itself. There is always the possibility of being related to the whole by our lives and of being one with it, or of remaining as it were an isolated particle in the universe moment! moment! moment! moment! moment! moment!
13b
Economy 13b written: A rewritten: B, C, D
A & B: Economy 13b, which follows Economy 83d, precedes Economy 12-13a.
A: Economy 13b was added, along with Economy 11, on the verso of the partial leaf containing the fair copy of “that would sprinkle fertilizing rain … as it has lost” of Economy 10a.

(Ronald Clapper)
Nature and human life are as various as our several experiences, as our constitutions are various several experiences, as our constitutions are various several constitutions are various several constitutions are various several constitutions. several constitutions. several constitutions. several constitutions. Who shall say what prospect life offers to another? Could a greater miracle take place than if we should if we should for us to for us to for us to for us to for us to for us to for us to look through each other’s eyes for an instant? We should live in all the ages of the world in an hour; ay, in all the worlds of the ages. History, Poetry, Mythology!—I know of no reading of another’s experience so ineffably grand ineffably grand startling startling startling startling startling startling startling and startling informing informing informing informing informing informing informing informing as this would be.
14
Economy 14 written: D
D: Economy 14 was added, along with Economy 10c, on the verso of a separate leaf.

(Ronald Clapper)
Almost all that The greater part of what The greater part of what The greater part of what The greater part of what The greater part of what my neighbors call good I believe in my soul to be bad, and if I repent of any thing, it is of very likely to be very likely to be very likely to be very likely to be very likely to be my good behavior. What demon possessed me that I behaved so well? You may say the wisest thing you can old man,—you who have lived seventy years, not without honor of a kind,—I hear an irresistible voice which invites me away from all that. One generation abandons the enterprises of another like stranded vessels. One generation abandons the enterprises of another like stranded vessels. One generation abandons the enterprises of another like stranded vessels. One generation abandons the enterprises of another like stranded vessels.
15
Economy 15 written: A rewritten: B, C, D
D: A fair copy was made of only “I think that we may safely trust a good deal more than we do. We are made to”.

(Ronald Clapper)
I think I think I think that I think that I think that I think that I think that I think that we may safely trust a good deal more than we do. We may waive just as as as so so so so so so much care of ourselves as we devote bestow elsewhere. Suppose we choose the better part and fail, whose failure is it? bestow elsewhere. Suppose we choose the better part and fail, whose failure is it? honestly bestow elsewhere honestly bestow elsewhere. honestly bestow elsewhere. honestly bestow elsewhere. honestly bestow elsewhere. honestly bestow elsewhere. Nature is after all is after all is after all is is is is is as well adapted to our weakness as to our talents. weakness as to our talents. weaknesses as to our talents weakness as to our strength. weakness as to our strength. weakness as to our strength. weakness as to our strength. weakness as to our strength. weakness as to our strength. The incessant anxiety and strain of some persons some persons some persons some some some some some is a well nigh incurable form of disease. We are made to exaggerate the importance of what work we do; and yet how much is not done by us! and or, or, or, or, or, or, or, or, what if we had been taken sick? How vigilant we are! determined not to live by faith if we can avoid it; all the day long on the alert, at night we unwillingly say our prayers and commit ourselves to uncertainties. So thoroughly and sincerely are we compelled to live, reverencing our life, and denying the possibility of change. This is the only way, we say; but there are as many ways as there can be drawn radii from one centre. All change is a miracle to contemplate; but it is a miracle which is taking place every instant. How many yet more distant inhabitants beings may be contemplating yonder fine twinkling star which I now behold at the same instant—an eye in Orion an eye in Lyra the Eye of omniscience itself. There is always this possibility of being thus related by our lives to the All to the whole of our lives and being one with it—or of remaining as it were an isolated particle in the Universe n
Note: An earlier version of this passage was interlined in Economy 13a. (R. Clapper)
instant. How many yet more distant inhabitants beings may be contemplating yonder fine twinkling star which I now behold at the same instant—an eye in Orion an eye in Lyra the Eye of omniscience itself. There is always this possibility of being thus related by our lives to the All to the whole of our lives and being one with it—or of remaining as it were an isolated particle in the Universe n
Note: An earlier version of this passage was interlined in Economy 13a. (R. Clapper)
instant. These are influences the most powerful and perennial, which have not yet produced in man the effects which they are intended to produce instant. instant. instant. instant. instant.
Confucius said, “To know that we know what we know, and that we do not know what we do not know, that is true knowledge.” When one man has reduced a fact of the imagination to be a fact to his understanding, I foresee that all men at length establish their lives on that basis. Confucius said, “To know that we know what we know, and that we do not know what we do not know, that is true knowledge.” When one man has reduced a fact of the imagination to be a fact to his understanding, I foresee that all men at length establish their lives on that basis. Confucius said, “To know that we know what we know, and that we do not know what we do not know, that is true knowledge.” When one man has reduced a fact of the imagination to be a fact to his understanding, I foresee that all men at length establish their lives on that basis. Confucius said, “To know that we know what we know, and that we do not know what we do not know, that is true knowledge.” When one man has reduced a fact of the imagination to be a fact to his understanding, I foresee that all men at length establish their lives on that basis. Confucius said, “To know that we know what we know, and that we do not know what we do not know, that is true knowledge.” When one man has reduced a fact of the imagination to be a fact to his understanding, I foresee that all men at length establish their lives on that basis. Confucius said, “To know that we know what we know, and that we do not know what we do not know, that is true knowledge.” When one man has reduced a fact of the imagination to be a fact to his understanding, I foresee that all men at length establish their lives on that basis. Confucius said, “To know that we know what we know, and that we do not know what we do not know, that is true knowledge.” When one man has reduced a fact of the imagination to be a fact to his understanding, I foresee that all men at length establish their lives on that basis. n
Note: interlined in pencil on a leaf that was originally a part of B. (R. Clapper)
16
Economy 16 written: A rewritten: B, C, D
A & B: Economy 16 is followed by Economy 85c.

(Ronald Clapper)
Let us consider for a moment what all this trouble and anxiety is are about—what are the gross necessaries of life. I imagine it all this trouble and anxiety are about —what are the gross necessaries of life and how much it is indispensable that we be troubled or at least provident be careful I imagine think it all or most of most of this trouble and anxiety are is about, and how much it is indispensable that we be troubled, or at least be careful. I think that Methinks it most of this the trouble and anxiety which I have referred to is about, and how much it is indispensable necessary that we be troubled, or, at least, careful. It most of the trouble and anxiety which I have referred to is about, and how much it is necessary that we be troubled, or, at least, careful. It most of the trouble and anxiety which I have referred to is about, and how much it is necessary that we be troubled, or, at least, careful. It most of the trouble and anxiety which I have referred to is about, and how much it is necessary that we be troubled, or, at least, careful. It most of the trouble and anxiety which I have referred to is about, and how much it is necessary that we be troubled, or, at least, careful. It would be some advantage to live a primitive and frontier life, though in the midst of an outward civilization, if only to know what are after all the necessaries of life, and what methods society has taken to supply them know learn what are after all the necessaries of life, as they are called and what methods society has taken to supply have taken to obtain them learn what are the gross necessaries of life, as they are called, and what methods have been taken to obtain them; or learn what are the gross necessaries of life and what methods have been taken to obtain them; or learn what are the gross necessaries of life and what methods have been taken to obtain them; or learn what are the gross necessaries of life and what methods have been taken to obtain them; or learn what are the gross necessaries of life and what methods have been taken to obtain them; or learn what are the gross necessaries of life and what methods have been taken to obtain them; or even to look over the old day- books of the merchants, to see what it was that men most commonly bought at the stores, what they stored, that is, what are the grossest groceries. For all the improvements of the ages do not carry a man backward or forward in relation to the great most important facts of his what they stored or in other words what are the grossest groceries. For all the improvements of the ages do not carry a man backward or forward in relation to the most important facts of his have but little influence on the essential laws of our what they stored,—or, in other words, that is, what are the grossest groceries. For all the improvements of ages have had but little influence of the essential laws of man’s what they stored,—that is, what are the grossest groceries. For all the improvements of ages have had but little influence on the essential laws of man’s what are the grossest groceries. For the improvements of ages have had but little influence on the essential laws of man’s what are the grossest groceries. For the improvements of ages have had but little influence on the essential laws of man’s what are the grossest groceries. For the improvements of ages have had but little influence on the essential laws of man’s what are the grossest groceries. For the improvements of ages have had but little influence on the essential laws of man’s existence; as our skeletons, are are perhaps probably are probably, are probably, are probably, are probably, are probably, are not to be distinguished from those of our ancestors.I do not here affirm unchangeableness of the future; but we can see further into the future with the evidence of faith than into the past, with the evidence of history; and we expect from the future changes to be paralleled only, perchance, by experiences which the race has forgotten. He is the wisest scheemer whose scheme will be the latest to succeed. The greatest discoverers have not to fear that any will infringe on their patents during their lives. ancestors.I do not here affirm unchangeableness of the future; but we can see further into the future with the evidence of faith than into the past, with the evidence of history; and we expect from the future changes to be paralleled only, perchance, by experiences which the race has forgotten. He is the wisest scheemer whose scheme will be the latest to succeed. The greatest discoverers have not to fear that any will infringe on their patents during their lives. ancestors.I do not here affirm unchangeableness of the future; but we can see further into the future with the evidence of faith than into the past, with the evidence of history; and we expect from the future changes to be paralleled only, perchance, by experiences which the race has forgotten. He is the wisest scheemer whose scheme will be the latest to succeed. The greatest discoverers have not to fear that any will infringe on their patents during their lives. ancestors.I do not here affirm unchangeableness of the future; but we can see further into the future with the evidence of faith than into the past, with the evidence of history; and we expect from the future changes to be paralleled only, perchance, by experiences which the race has forgotten. He is the wisest scheemer whose scheme will be the latest to succeed. The greatest discoverers have not to fear that any will infringe on their patents during their lives. ancestors. ancestors. ancestors. ancestors.
17a
Economy 17a written: B rewritten: C, D

(Ronald Clapper)
By the term term phrase, phrase, words, words, words, words, necessary of life , I mean whatever, of of all that man obtains by his exertions, of all that man obtains by his exertions, of all that man obtains by his exertions, of all that man obtains by his exertions, of all that man obtains by his exertions, of all that man obtains by his exertions, has been from the first, or from long use has become, so important to human life that few, if any, whether from poverty or from motives of economy or from philosophy ever attempt to dispense with it altogether. savageness, or poverty, or from motives of economy, or from philosophy, ever attempt to dispense with it altogether. savageness, or poverty, or philosophy, ever attempt to dispense with do without it altogether. savageness, or poverty, or philosophy, ever attempt to do without it. savageness, or poverty, or philosophy, ever attempt to do without it. savageness, or poverty, or philosophy, ever attempt to do without it. savageness, or poverty, or philosophy, ever attempt to do without it. 17b
Economy 17b written: A rewritten: B, C, D
C: A fair copy was made of only “To many creatures there is … requires more than Food and Shelter”. A fair copy of additional material from Economy 17b was apparently made on a leaf (#23) now missing.

(Ronald Clapper)
To many creatures there is only in this sense but only in this sense but in this sense but in this sense but in this sense but in this sense but in this sense but in this sense but one necessary of life, Food. To the bison of the prairie it is a few inches of palatable grass, with water to drink; with water to drink; with water to drink; with water to drink; with water to drink; with water to drink; unless he seeks the Shelter of the forest or the mountain’s shadow. None of the brute creation require requires requires requires requires requires requires requires more than Food and Shelter.Perhaps Man also, we can imagine, was at first an animal—All animals are but imperfect and infantile men. In that Golden Age a mere animal in these respects—and the Nature which produced him, Nature was so genial n
Note: missing leaf follows (R. Clapper)
Shelter.Perhaps Man also, we can imagine, was at first an animal—All animals are but imperfect and infantile men. In that Golden Age a mere animal in these respects—and the Nature which produced him, Nature was so genial n
Note: missing leaf follows (R. Clapper)
Shelter.Perhaps Man also, we can imagine, was at first an animal—All animals are but imperfect and infantile men. In that Golden Age a mere animal in these respects—and the Nature which produced him, Nature was so genial n
Note: missing leaf follows (R. Clapper)
Shelter. Perhaps man also was at first a mere animal in these respects, and the Nature which produced him was so genial that he wanted only food to sustain his life, and this was almost completely provided and prepared for him, like albumen which surrounds the young bird in the egg. On which supposition But after the lapse of geological periods, Nature grown less fond, though not less kind, drove him from her breast, and is still driving him, with increasing sternness and coldness, as some assert, and gradually weaning her child. He must earn his living at last by the sweat of his brow, that is, the exercise of his brain, in other words, the development of reason. If he would maintain his position on earth, he must build, and hunt, and weave, and fell, and mine. What was the effort of reason in ancient men, has become, in a degree, instinct in their posterity, while, perchance, the seeds of new instincts still are being planted today. However this may be, Shelter. Shelter. Shelter. Shelter.
For man, in this climate, the necessaries of life may, For man, in this climate, the necessaries of life may, The necessaries of life for man in this climate may, accurately enough, The necessaries of life for man in this climate may, accurately enough, The necessaries of life for man in this climate may, accurately enough, The necessaries of life for man in this climate may, accurately enough, The necessaries of life for man in this climate may, accurately enough, The necessaries of life for man in this climate may, accurately enough, be distributed under the several heads of Food, Shelter, Clothing, and Fuel; for not till we have secured these are we prepared to entertain the true problems of life with freedom and a prospect of success. for not till we have secured these are we prepared to entertain the true problems of life with freedom and a prospect of success. for not till we have secured these are we prepared to entertain the true problems of life with freedom and a prospect of success. for not till we have secured these are we prepared to entertain the true problems of life with freedom and a prospect of success. for not till we have secured these are we prepared to entertain the true problems of life with freedom and a prospect of success. for not till we have secured these are we prepared to entertain the true problems of life with freedom and a prospect of success. for he has invented for he has invented man has invented not only houses, but Man has invented, not only houses, but Man has invented, not only houses, but Man has invented, not only houses, but Man has invented, not only houses, but Man has invented, not only houses, but Man has invented, not only houses, but clothes and cooked food; and probably probably possibly possibly possibly possibly possibly possibly from the accidental discovery of the warmth of fire, and the consequent use of it, and the consequent use of it, and the consequent use of it, and the consequent use of it, and the consequent use of it, and the consequent use of it, at first a luxury, arose the present necessity to sit by it. We observe cats and dogs acquiring the same second nature. By proper proper proper proper proper proper proper Shelter and Fuel Clothing Clothing Clothing Clothing Clothing Clothing Clothing Clothing we legitimately retain our own internal heat; but with Fuel or at least with an excess of these or of Fuel, or at least i.e. with an excess of these, or of Fuel, that is, with an excess of these, or of Fuel, that is, with an excess of these, or of Fuel, that is, with an excess of these, or of Fuel, that is, with an excess of these, or of Fuel, that is, with an excess of these, or of Fuel, that is, with an external heat greater than our own internal, cookery may may not cookery may may not cookery may not cookery may not cookery may not cookery may not cookery may not cookery properly be said to begin. This is the state of the luxurious and wealthy? begin? begin? begin? begin? begin? begin? begin? 17c
Economy 17c written: C rewritten: D
C: Economy 17c was added in pencil on the verso of a leaf from B.

(Ronald Clapper)
Darwin, the naturalist, says of the inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego, that while his own party, who were well clothed and sitting close to a fire, were far from too warm, these naked savages, who were farther off, were observed, to his great surprise, “to be streaming with perspiration at undergoing such a roasting.” 17d
Economy 17d written: A rewritten: B, C, D
A: The order is Economy 17f, 17e, 17d.
B: Economy 17d is followed by Economy 42b.
C: A fair copy of Economy 17d was made in pencil after Economy 17c was added.

(Ronald Clapper)
So, So, we are told, So, we are told, So, we are told, So, we are told, So, we are told, So, we are told, the New Hollander who goes naked, who goes nakedwith impunity, goes naked with impunity, goes naked with impunity, goes naked with impunity, goes naked with impunity, goes naked with impunity, goes naked with impunity, while the European shivers in his clothes, warms his whole body simply by putting his extremities closer to the fire than the former can bear clothes, warms his whole body simply by putting his extremities closer to the fire than the former can bear clothes. clothes. clothes. clothes. clothes. clothes. Is it impossible to combine the hardiness of these savages with the intellectualness of the civilized man? Is it impossible to combine the hardiness of these savages with the intellectualness of the civilized man? Is it impossible to combine the hardiness of these savages with the intellectualness of the civilized man? Is it impossible to combine the hardiness of these savages with the intellectualness of the civilized man? Is it impossible to combine the hardiness of these savages with the intellectualness of the civilized man? Is it impossible to combine the hardiness of these savages with the intellectualness of the civilized man? Is it impossible to combine the hardiness of these savages with the intellectualness of the civilized man? 17e
Economy 17e written: A rewritten: B

(Ronald Clapper)
According to Liebig, man’s body is a box stove, boxstove, stove, stove, stove, stove, stove, stove, and food the fuel which keeps up the internal combustion in the lungs. In cold weather we eat more, in warm less. The animal heat is in fact is in fact is is is is is is the result of a slow combustion, and disease and death take place when this is too rapid; or for want of fuel, or from some defect in the draught, the fire goes out. Of course the vital heat is not to be confounded with fire; but so much for analogy. Of course the animal vital heat is not to be confounded with fire; but so much for the analogy. Of course the vital heat is not to be confounded with fire; but so much for analogy. Of course the vital heat is not to be confounded with fire; but so much for analogy. Of course the vital heat is not to be confounded with fire; but so much for analogy. Of course the vital heat is not to be confounded with fire; but so much for analogy. Of course the vital heat is not to be confounded with fire; but so much for analogy. Of course the vital heat is not to be confounded with fire; but so much for analogy. 17f
Economy 17f written: A rewritten: B

(Ronald Clapper)
From this list it appears It appears, then therefore, from the above list It appears, therefore, from the above list, It appears, therefore, from the above list, It appears, therefore, from the above list, It appears, therefore, from the above list, It appears, therefore, from the above list, It appears, therefore, from the above list, that the expression, animal , heat heat life life life life life life life is nearly synonymous with the expression, the expression, the expression, the expression, the expression, the expression, the expression, animal ; life life heat; heat; heat; heat; heat; heat; heat; for Shelter Clothing and Fuel warm us, so to speak from without, Food from within. While Food is may be regarded as the fuel which keeps up the fire within us, and Fuel serves only to prepare that Food, or to increase the warmth of our bodies by addition from without—Shelter and Clothing also serve only to retain the heat thus generated and absorbed. while Food may be regarded as the Fuel which keeps up the fire within us,—and Fuel serves only to prepare that Food or to increase the warmth of our bodies by addition from without,—Shelter and Clothing also serve only to retain the heat thus generated and absorbed. while Food may be regarded as the Fuel which keeps up the fire within us,—and Fuel serves only to prepare that Food or to increase the warmth of our bodies by addition from without,—Shelter and Clothing also serve only to retain the heat thus generated and absorbed. while Food may be regarded as the Fuel which keeps up the fire within us,—and Fuel serves only to prepare that Food or to increase the warmth of our bodies by addition from without,—Shelter and Clothing also serve only to retain the heat thus generated and absorbed. while Food may be regarded as the Fuel which keeps up the fire within us,—and Fuel serves only to prepare that Food or to increase the warmth of our bodies by addition from without,—Shelter and Clothing also serve only to retain the heat thus generated and absorbed. while Food may be regarded as the Fuel which keeps up the fire within us,—and Fuel serves only to prepare that Food or to increase the warmth of our bodies by addition from without,—Shelter and Clothing also serve only to retain the heat thus generated and absorbed. while Food may be regarded as the Fuel which keeps up the fire within us,—and Fuel serves only to prepare that Food or to increase the warmth of our bodies by addition from without,—Shelter and Clothing also serve only to retain the heat thus generated and absorbed.
18
Economy 18 written: A rewritten: B
A: “Yet some, not wise, go … of course” à la mode was interlined.

(Ronald Clapper)
The grand necessity, then, for our bodies, is to keep warm, to keep the vital heat in us. What pains accordingly do we take we accordingly do we take not only with our Food & Clothing & Shelter but we accordingly take, not only with our Food, and Clothing, and Shelter, but we accordingly take, not only with our Food, and Clothing, and Shelter, but we accordingly take, not only with our Food, and Clothing, and Shelter, but we accordingly take, not only with our Food, and Clothing, and Shelter, but we accordingly take, not only with our Food, and Clothing, and Shelter, but we accordingly take, not only with our Food, and Clothing, and Shelter, but with our beds, which are our night-clothes, robbing the nests & breasts of birds and their breasts and breasts of birds and breasts of birds and breasts of birds and breasts of birds and breasts of birds and breasts of birds and breasts of birds to prepare this shelter within a shelter, as the mole has its bed of grass and leaves at the end of its burrow! The poor man is wont to complain that this is a cold world; and to cold, either physical or social, we refer directly a great part of our ails. The poor man is wont to complain that this is a cold world; and to cold, no less physical than social, we refer directly a great part of our ails. The poor man is wont to complain that this is a cold world; and to cold, no less physical than social, we refer directly a great part of our ails. The poor man is wont to complain that this is a cold world; and to cold, no less physical than social, we refer directly a great part of our ails. The poor man is wont to complain that this is a cold world; and to cold, no less physical than social, we refer directly a great part of our ails. The poor man is wont to complain that this is a cold world; and to cold, no less physical than social, we refer directly a great part of our ails. The poor man is wont to complain that this is a cold world; and to cold, no less physical than social, we refer directly a great part of our ails. The summer, in some climates, in some climates, in some climates, in some climates, in some climates, in some climates, in some climates, makes possible a sort of Elysian life to man. to man a sort of Elysian life to man. to man a sort of Elysian life. to man a sort of Elysian life. to man a sort of Elysian life. to man a sort of Elysian life. to man a sort of Elysian life. to man a sort of Elysian life. Fuel, except to cook his Food, is then unnecessary; the sun is his fire, and many of the fruits are sufficiently cooked by its rays; while Food generally is more various, and more easily obtained, and Clothing and Shelter are half dispensed with even in our climate. half dispensed with even in our climate wholly or half unnecessary. wholly or half unnecessary. wholly or half unnecessary. wholly or half unnecessary. wholly or half unnecessary. wholly or half unnecessary. wholly or half unnecessary. At the present day, and in this country, as I find by my own experience, as I find by my own experience, as I find by my own experience, as I find by my own experience, as I find by my own experience, as I find by my own experience, as I find by my own experience, a few implements, a knife, an axe, a spade, a wheelbarrow, &c., and with with for for for for for for for the studious, light, light lamplight, lamplight, lamplight, lamplight, lamplight, lamplight, lamplight, stationery, and access to a few books, rank next to necessaries, and can all be obtained at a trifling cost. Yet some, not wise, will go willgo go go go go go go to the other side of the globe, to barbarous and unhealthy regions, and devote themselves to trade for ten or twenty years, in order that they may livecomfortably, live, live, live, live, live, live, live, — that is, keep comfortably warm,—and die in New England at last. The luxuriously rich are not simply kept comfortably warm, they are cooked—done brown, as you may say— but are but but but but but but but unnaturally hot; as we said we I implied I implied I implied I implied I implied I implied I implied before, they are cooked, of course always of course of course always of course of course of course of course of course of course of course à la mode .
19a
Economy 19a written: A rewritten: B

(Ronald Clapper)
To the elevation and ennoblement of mankind what are called the luxuries & many of the comforts of life are not only not indispensable, but positive hindrances. To the elevation and ennoblement of mankind what are called Most of the luxuries and many of the so-called comforts of life are not only not indispensable, but positive hindrances to the elevation of mankind. Most of the luxuries, and many of the so-called comforts of life, are not only indispensable, but positive hindrances to the elevation of mankind. Most of the luxuries, and many of the so-called comforts of life, are not only indispensable, but positive hindrances to the elevation of mankind. Most of the luxuries, and many of the so-called comforts of life, are not only indispensable, but positive hindrances to the elevation of mankind. Most of the luxuries, and many of the so-called comforts of life, are not only indispensable, but positive hindrances to the elevation of mankind. Most of the luxuries, and many of the so-called comforts of life, are not only indispensable, but positive hindrances to the elevation of mankind. Most of the luxuries, and many of the so-called comforts of life, are not only indispensable, but positive hindrances to the elevation of mankind. With respect to luxuries and comforts, the wisest have ever lived a more simple and meager life than the poor. The ancient philosophers, Chinese, Hindoo, Persian, and Greek,and I may add Christ as a more popular example perhaps generally Chinese, Hindoo, Persian, and Greek, Chinese, Hindoo, Persian, and Greek, Chinese, Hindoo, Persian, and Greek, Chinese, Hindoo, Persian, and Greek, Chinese, Hindoo, Persian, and Greek, Chinese, Hindoo, Persian, and Greek, were a class of men than whom none were have been poorer in respect to class of men than which none have been poorer in respect to class than which none has been poorer in class than which none has been poorer in class than which none has been poorer in class than which none has been poorer in class than which none has been poorer in class than which none has been poorer in outward riches, none so rich in inward. We know not much about them. It is astonishing that we can know so much as we do astonishing remarkable that we can know so much of them as we do. The same is true of the most important reformers that have lived remarkable that we know so much of them as we do. remarkable that we know so much of them as we do. remarkable that we know so much of them as we do. remarkable that we know so much of them as we do. remarkable that we know so much of them as we do. remarkable that we know so much of them as we do. The same is true of the more modern reformers and benefactors of their race. None can be an impartial or wise observer of human life but from the vantage ground of what we should call voluntary poverty. Of a life of luxury the fruit is luxury, whether in agriculture, or commerce, or literature, or art. 19b
Economy 19b written: B rewritten: C
C: A fair copy was made of Economy 19b on a leaf from B.

(Ronald Clapper)
Critics have been very lavish of the word philosopher of late. According to them every century has had several. But we have forgotten what the name implies. These men were perhaps We hear nowadays of professors of philosophy, of readers of it, sometimes even of utterers of it to a slight extent, but never of livers of it. But We hear nowadays of professors of philosophy, of readers of it, sometimes even of utterers of it to a slight extent, but never of livers of it. But There are nowadays professors of philosophy, but not philosophers. Yet There are nowadays professors of philosophy, but not philosophers. Yet There are nowadays professors of philosophy, but not philosophers. Yet There are nowadays professors of philosophy, but not philosophers. Yet There are nowadays professors of philosophy, but not philosophers. Yet There are nowadays professors of philosophy, but not philosophers. Yet it is admirable to profess, to or read, to or utter, simply profess or read or utter, simply profess profess profess profess profess because it was once admirable to live. To be a philosopher is not even not merely not merely not merely not merely not merely not merely to have subtle thoughts, and and nor even to nor even to nor even to nor even to nor even to found a school, merely, but, what is infinitely rarer still, to live a life of simplicity, of independence, of magnanimity and trust, such as the weak, the unwise and the dependent can not live. —With the actual life of man for the problem, to see how you can solve it! few have ever lived. It is to solve some of the problems of life both theoretically & practically Some modern men who have copied the title of philosopher have had skill and ambition and skill enough to lead partially successful and pleasing lives under the circumstances, but there is no bending of circumstances under their hands. It is considering their circumstances, but theirs was at best a courtier like success, not kingly, not manly. We are pigmies and dwarfs. They have made shift to live merely by conformity & a kind of flattery of fate Where are the progenitors of a nobler race of men?—the founders of nations? Why do It would be well to ask ourselves why merely but so to love wisdom as to live according to its dictates, a life of simplicity, independence, magnanimity & trust. It is to solve some of the problems of life, which it is given to all to solve, not only theoretically but practically. Some modern men who have borne this title have had ambition and skill enough to lead partially successful lives, considering their circumstances, but theirs was at best The success of great scholars & thinkers is commonly a courtier like success, not kingly, not manly. They have made make shift to live merely by conformity and by flattering their fates. Where are practically as their fathers did and are in no sense the progenitors of a nobler race of men —the founders of nations? It would be well to ask ourselves why But why do but so to love wisdom as to live according to its dictates, a life of simplicity, independence, magnanimity, and trust. It is to solve some of the problems of life, not only theoretically, but practically. The success of great scholars and thinkers is commonly a courtier-like success, not kingly, not manly. They make shift to live merely by conformity, practically as their fathers did, and are in no sense the progenitors of a nobler race of men. But why do but so to love wisdom as to live according to its dictates, a life of simplicity, independence, magnanimity, and trust. It is to solve some of the problems of life, not only theoretically, but practically. The success of great scholars and thinkers is commonly a courtier-like success, not kingly, not manly. They make shift to live merely by conformity, practically as their fathers did, and are in no sense the progenitors of a nobler race of men. But why do but so to love wisdom as to live according to its dictates, a life of simplicity, independence, magnanimity, and trust. It is to solve some of the problems of life, not only theoretically, but practically. The success of great scholars and thinkers is commonly a courtier-like success, not kingly, not manly. They make shift to live merely by conformity, practically as their fathers did, and are in no sense the progenitors of a nobler race of men. But why do but so to love wisdom as to live according to its dictates, a life of simplicity, independence, magnanimity, and trust. It is to solve some of the problems of life, not only theoretically, but practically. The success of great scholars and thinkers is commonly a courtier-like success, not kingly, not manly. They make shift to live merely by conformity, practically as their fathers did, and are in no sense the progenitors of a nobler race of men. But why do but so to love wisdom as to live according to its dictates, a life of simplicity, independence, magnanimity, and trust. It is to solve some of the problems of life, not only theoretically, but practically. The success of great scholars and thinkers is commonly a courtier-like success, not kingly, not manly. They make shift to live merely by conformity, practically as their fathers did, and are in no sense the progenitors of a nobler race of men. But why do men degenerate ever? What makes families run out? What is the nature of that luxury that which that the luxury which the luxury which the luxury which the luxury which the luxury which the luxury which enervates and destroys nations? And is there are we sure that there is And are we sure that there is Are we sure that there is Are we sure that there is Are we sure that there is Are we sure that there is Are we sure that there is none of it in our own our own our own our own our own our own our own lives? As I have said the philosopher is in advance of his age not merely in his discourse, but in his life, even in the outward form and outward mode if it. As I have said Certainly the philosopher is in advance of his age, not merely in his discourse, but in his life, even in the outward form & mode of it of his life. The philosopher is in advance of his age even in the outward form of his life. The philosopher is in advance of his age even in the outward form of his life. The philosopher is in advance of his age even in the outward form of his life. The philosopher is in advance of his age even in the outward form of his life. The philosopher is in advance of his age even in the outward form of his life. He is not fed, sheltered, clothed, warmed, like his fellows. fellows contemporaries. contemporaries. contemporaries. contemporaries. contemporaries. contemporaries. How can a man be a philosopher and not maintain his vital heat by better methods than other men?
20
Economy 20 written: A rewritten: B, C
C: A fair copy was made only of “When a man is warmed … rise in the same proportion”.

(Ronald Clapper)
When a man is warmed by the several modes which which which which which which which I have described, what more does he want? Not surely more does he want? Not surely does he want next? Surely not does he want next? Surely not does he want next? Surely not does he want next? Surely not does he want next? Surely not does he want next? Surely not does he want next? Surely not more warmth of the same kind, as more and richer food, larger and more splendid houses, finer and more abundant clothing, more numerous incessant and hotter fires, and the like. When he has obtained those things which are necessary to life, there is another alternative than to obtain the superfluities; and that is, When he has obtained those things which are necessary to life there is another alternative than to obtain the superfluities, which & that is When he has obtained those things which are necessary to life, there is another alternative than to obtain the superfluities; and that is, When he has obtained those things which are necessary to life, there is another alternative than to obtain the superfluities; and that is, When he has obtained those things which are necessary to life, there is another alternative than to obtain the superfluities; and that is, When he has obtained those things which are necessary to life, there is another alternative than to obtain the superfluities; and that is, When he has obtained those things which are necessary to life, there is another alternative than to obtain the superfluities; and that is, to adventure on life now, his vacation from humbler toil from humbler toil from humbler toil from humbler toil from humbler toil having commenced. The soil, it seems, seems, seems appears, appears, appears, appears, appears, appears, is suited to the seed, and it may germinate expand and unfold its germ at length. and it may expand and unfold its germ at length. and it may unfold its germ at length for it has sent its radicle downward, & it may now send its shoot upward also with confidence. for it has sent its radicle downward, and it may now send its shoot upward also with confidence. for it has sent its radicle downward, and it may now send its shoot upward also with confidence. for it has sent its radicle downward, and it may now send its shoot upward also with confidence. for it has sent its radicle downward, and it may now send its shoot upward also with confidence. for it has sent its radicle downward, and it may now send its shoot upward also with confidence. Why has he he he man man man man man man rooted himself thus firmly in the earth, but that he may rise in the same proportion into the heavens above?—for the nobler plants bear their fruit bear their fruit are valued for the fruit they bear are valued for the fruit they bear are valued for the fruit they bear are valued for the fruit they bear are valued for the fruit they bear are valued for the fruit they bear are valued for the fruit they bear at last in the air and light, far from the ground, and are not treated treated treated treated treated treated treated like the humbler esculents, continually cut down at top that they make more root. continually cut down at top that they may make more root which though they may be biennials are cultivated only till they have perfected their root & are often cut down at top for this purpose, so that most would not know them in their flowering season. which, though they may be biennials, are cultivated only till they have perfected their root, and often cut down at top for this purpose, so that most would not know them in their flowering season. which, though they may be biennials, are cultivated only till they have perfected their root, and often cut down at top for this purpose, so that most would not know them in their flowering season. which, though they may be biennials, are cultivated only till they have perfected their root, and often cut down at top for this purpose, so that most would not know them in their flowering season. which, though they may be biennials, are cultivated only till they have perfected their root, and often cut down at top for this purpose, so that most would not know them in their flowering season. which, though they may be biennials, are cultivated only till they have perfected their root, and often cut down at top for this purpose, so that most would not know them in their flowering season. which, though they may be biennials, are cultivated only till they have perfected their root, and often cut down at top for this purpose, so that most would not know them in their flowering season.
21
Economy 21 written: A rewritten: B
B: Economy 21 is followed by Economy106b.

(Ronald Clapper)
I do not mean to prescribe rules here rules here rules rules rules rules rules rules to strong and valiant natures, which that who who who who who who who will mind their own affairs in heaven or hell indifferently, and whether in heaven or hell indifferently, and perchance whether in heaven or hell, and perchance whether in heaven or hell, and perchance whether in heaven or hell, and perchance whether in heaven or hell, and perchance whether in heaven or hell, and perchance whether in heaven or hell, and perchance build more magnificently and spend more lavishly than Croesus, Croesus the richest, the richest, the richest, the richest, the richest, the richest, the richest, without ever impoverishing themselves, not knowing how they live,— nor to those, if there are any, if indeed there are any such; nor to those, if there are any, if, indeed, there are any such, as has been dreamed; nor to those if, indeed, there are any such, as has been dreamed; nor to those if, indeed, there are any such, as has been dreamed; nor to those if, indeed, there are any such, as has been dreamed; nor to those if, indeed, there are any such, as has been dreamed; nor to those if, indeed, there are any such, as has been dreamed; nor to those who find their encouragement and inspiration in precisely the present condition of society, society things, things, things, things, things, things, things, and cherish it with the fondness and enthusiasm of lovers,— not and in one sense I reckon myself in this number—I do not speak and in one sense to some extent I reckon myself in this number—I do not speak and, to some extent, I reckon myself in this number; I do not speak and, to some extent, I reckon myself in this number; I do not speak and, to some extent, I reckon myself in this number; I do not speak and, to some extent, I reckon myself in this number; I do not speak and, to some extent, I reckon myself in this number; I do not speak and, to some extent, I reckon myself in this number; I do not speak to those who are well employed, under under in in in in in in in whatever circumstances, and they will know willknow know know know know know know whether they are well employed or not;—but I speak mainly mainly mainly mainly mainly mainly to the mass of men who are discontented, and idly complaining of the hardness of their lot and and or or or or or or or of the times, when they might improve them. Why! there Why, there There There There There There There are some who complain most energetically and inconsolably of all because, as they say, they are doing their duty.—And I also speak to and inconsolably of all any, because they are, as they say, they are doing their duty.—And I also speak to and inconsolably of any, because they are, as they say, doing their duty. I also have in mind and inconsolably of any, because they are, as they say, doing their duty. I also have in mind and inconsolably of any, because they are, as they say, doing their duty. I also have in mind and inconsolably of any, because they are, as they say, doing their duty. I also have in mind and inconsolably of any, because they are, as they say, doing their duty. I also have in mind and inconsolably of any, because they are, as they say, doing their duty. I also have in mind that seemingly wealthy, but most terribly impoverished class of all, who have accumulated dross, but know not how to spend use use use use use use use use it, or get rid of it, and thus have forged their own golden or silver fetters.
22
Economy 22 written: A rewritten: B

(Ronald Clapper)
If I should undertake undertake attempt attempt attempt attempt attempt attempt attempt to tell how I have desired to spend my life in years past, I should probably only startle I should probably only startle it would probably surprise it would probably surprise it would probably surprise it would probably surprise it would probably surprise it would probably surprise it would probably surprise you those n
Note: space left blank during original copying (R. Clapper)
those of my readers
those of my readers those of my readers those of my readers those of my readers those of my readers those of my readers
who are somewhat acquainted with its actual history; it would certainly astonish those who know nothing about it. I should certainly startle astonish those who know nothing about it it would certainly astonish those who know nothing about it. it would certainly astonish those who know nothing about it. it would certainly astonish those who know nothing about it. it would certainly astonish those who know nothing about it. it would certainly astonish those who know nothing about it. it would certainly astonish those who know nothing about it. I will only hint at some of the enterprises which which which which which which which I have cherished.
23
Economy 23 written: A rewritten: B

(Ronald Clapper)
In any weather, at any hour of the day or night, I have been anxious to improve the nick of time, and notch it on my stick too; to stand on the meeting of two eternities, the past and future, which is precisely the present time moment; moment; moment; moment; moment; moment; moment; moment; to toe that line. You will pardon some obscurities, for I believe for I believe that for for for for for for there are more secrets in my trade than in most men’s, and yet not voluntary ones either, voluntary ones either voluntarily kept, voluntarily kept, voluntarily kept, voluntarily kept, voluntarily kept, voluntarily kept, voluntarily kept, but inseparable from its very nature. I would gladly tell all that that that that that that that I know about it, and never paint “No Admittance” on my gate.
24
Economy 24 written: A rewritten: B

(Ronald Clapper)
I long ago lost a hound, and a turtle dove and a bay horse and a turtledove, a bay horse, and a turtledove, a bay horse, and a turtledove, a bay horse, and a turtledove, a bay horse, and a turtledove, a bay horse, and a turtledove, a bay horse, and a turtledove, a bay horse, and a turtledove, and am still on their trail. Many’s the traveller Many’s the traveller Many are the travellers Many are the travellers Many are the travellers Many are the travellers Many are the travellers Many are the travellers Many are the travellers I have spoken concerning them, describing their tracks and what calls they answered to. I have met one or two who had heard the hound, and the tramp of the horse, and even seen the dove disappear behind a cloud, and they seemed as anxious to recover them as if they had lost them themselves.
25
Economy 25 written: A rewritten: B

(Ronald Clapper)
To anticipate, not the sunrise and the dawn merely, but, if possible, Nature herself! How many mornings, summer and winter, before yet any man man neighbor neighbor neighbor neighbor neighbor neighbor was stirring about his business, I have I have I have I have I have I have I have I have I been about mine! No doubt, some some many many many many many many many of my hearers readers n
Note: space left blank during original copying (R. Clapper)
townsmen
townsmen townsmen townsmen townsmen townsmen townsmen
have met me returning from this enterprise, farmers starting for Boston in the twilight, or woodchoppers going to their work. To be sure, To be sure It is true, It is true, It is true, It is true, It is true, It is true, It is true, I never assisted the sun materially in his rising, but, be sure depend upon it doubt not, doubt not, doubt not, doubt not, doubt not, doubt not, doubt not, doubt not, it was of the last importance only to be present at it. How many an afternoon has been stolen from more profitable if not more attractive industry, afternoons where a good run of custom might have been expected on the main street, tempting all womankind out of a shopping, spent I say by me on the margin of the meadows, in the well nigh hopeless attempt to set this river on fire, or be set on fire by it, with such tinder as I had with such flint as I was. it. How many an afternoon has been stolen from more profitable if not more attractive industry, afternoons were a good run of custom might have been expected on the main street, tempting all womankind out of a shopping—spent I say by me on the margin of the meadows in the well night hopeless attempt to set this river on fire, or be set on fire by it, with such tinder a I had, with such flint as I was. it. it. it. it. it. it.
26
Economy 26 written: A rewritten: B

(Ronald Clapper)
So many autumn, ay, and wintry winter winter winter winter winter winter winter days, spent outside the town, trying to hear what was in the wind, to hear and carry it express! I well-nigh sunk all my capital in it, and lost my own breath into the bargain, running in the face of it. If it had concerned either of the political political political political political political political political parties, depend upon it, it would have appeared in the Gazette with the earliest intelligence. At other times watching from the observatory of some the cliffs or some tree the cliffs or some tree some cliff or tree, some cliff or tree, some cliff or tree, some cliff or tree, some cliff or tree, some cliff or tree, to telegraph any new arrival; or or waiting at evening on the hill tops for the sky to fall, that I might catch something, though I never caught much, only a little manna-wise, that would dissolve again in the sun. or waiting at evening on the hill-tops for the sky to fall, that I might catch something, though I never caught much, only a little manna-wise, that would dissolve & that manna-wise, which dissolved again in the sun. waiting at evening on the hill-tops for the sky to fall, that I might catch something, though I never caught much, and that, manna-wise, would dissolve again in the sun. waiting at evening on the hill-tops for the sky to fall, that I might catch something, though I never caught much, and that, manna-wise, would dissolve again in the sun. waiting at evening on the hill-tops for the sky to fall, that I might catch something, though I never caught much, and that, manna-wise, would dissolve again in the sun. waiting at evening on the hill-tops for the sky to fall, that I might catch something, though I never caught much, and that, manna-wise, would dissolve again in the sun. waiting at evening on the hill-tops for the sky to fall, that I might catch something, though I never caught much, and that, manna-wise, would dissolve again in the sun. waiting at evening on the hill-tops for the sky to fall, that I might catch something, though I never caught much, and that, manna-wise, would dissolve again in the sun.
27
Economy 27 written: A rewritten: B

(Ronald Clapper)
For a long time I was reporter to a journal, of no very wide circulation, whose editor has never yet seen fit to print my contributions, whose editor has never yet seen fit to print my contributions, whose editor has never yet seen fit to print the bulk of my contributions, whose editor has never yet seen fit to print the bulk of my contributions, whose editor has never yet seen fit to print the bulk of my contributions, whose editor has never yet seen fit to print the bulk of my contributions, whose editor has never yet seen fit to print the bulk of my contributions, whose editor has never yet seen fit to print the bulk of my contributions, and, as is too common with writers, with writers, with writers, with writers, with writers, with writers, with writers, I got only my pains for my labor labor for my pains. Literary contracts are so little binding. labor for my pains Literary contracts are so little binding. labor for my pains. labor for my pains. labor for my pains. labor for my pains. labor for my pains. labor for my pains. However, in this case my pains were their own reward. However in this case my labor was its pains were their own reward. However, in this case my pains were their own reward. However, in this case my pains were their own reward. However, in this case my pains were their own reward. However, in this case my pains were their own reward. However, in this case my pains were their own reward. However, in this case my pains were their own reward. However, in this case my pains were their own reward.
28
Economy 28 written: A rewritten: B

(Ronald Clapper)
For many years I was self-appointed inspector of snow storms and rain storms, and did my duty faithfully; surveyor, if not of highways, then of forest paths and all across-lot routes, keeping them open, and ravines bridged and passable at all seasons, where the public heel had testified to their utility.
29
Economy 29 written: A rewritten: B

(Ronald Clapper)
I have looked after the wild stock of the town, which pastures in common which as everyone knows give you pastures pasture in common, which as everyone knows give you & give a faithful herdsman give a faithful herdsman give a faithful herdsman give a faithful herdsman give a faithful herdsman give a faithful herdsman give a faithful herdsman a good deal of trouble in the way of in the way of by by by by by by by leaping fences; and I I I I I I I have had an eye to the unfrequented nooks and corners of the farm; though I did not always know whether Jonas or Solomon worked in a particular field to-day; that was none of my business. I have watered the red huckleberry, the sand cherry and the nettle tree, the cornel, the cornel the red pine, the wild holly, and the black ash, the red pine and the black ash, the red pine and the black ash, the red pine and the black ash, the red pine and the black ash, the red pine and the black ash, the red pine and the black ash, the white grape and the yellow violet, which might have withered else in dry seasons.
30
Economy 30 written: A rewritten: B

(Ronald Clapper)
In short, I went on thus thus thus thus thus thus thus for a long time, I may say it without boasting, faithfully minding my business, till it became more and more evident that my townsmen would not after all admit me into the list of town officers, nor make my place a sinecure with a moderate allowance. My accounts, which indeed, which I can swear to have been faithfully kept, I have, indeed, which I can swear to have been faithfully kept, I have indeed, which I can swear to have kept faithfully, I have, indeed, which I can swear to have kept faithfully, I have, indeed, which I can swear to have kept faithfully, I have, indeed, which I can swear to have kept faithfully, I have, indeed, which I can swear to have kept faithfully, I have, indeed, which I can swear to have kept faithfully, I have, indeed, never got audited, still less accepted, still less paid and settled. However, I have not set my heart on that.
31
Economy 31 written: D

(Ronald Clapper)
The other day Not long since, as I heard, Not long since, Not long since, Not long since, Not long since, a strolling Indian went to sell baskets at the house of a well-known lawyer in Concord my neighborhood. my neighborhood. my neighborhood. my neighborhood. “Do you wish to buy any baskets?” he asked. “No, we do not want any,” was the reply. “What!” exclaimed the Indian as he went out the gate, “do you mean to starve us?” exclaimed the former as he was going out the gate exclaimed the Indian as he went out the gate, “do you mean to starve us?” exclaimed the Indian as he went out the gate, “do you mean to starve us?” exclaimed the Indian as he went out the gate, “do you mean to starve us?” exclaimed the Indian as he went out the gate, “do you mean to starve us?” Apparentlyhaving Having Having Having Having seen his industrious white neighbors so well off,—that the lawyer had only to weave arguments, and by some magical means magic magic magic magic magic wealth and standing followed, he had said to himself, “I will do like the white man; himself; himself; himself; himself; I will go into business; I will weave baskets; it is a thing which I can do. Thinking that when he had made the baskets he had would have would have would have would have would have done his part, and now it was ours then it would be the white man’s then it would be the white man’s then it would be the white man’s then it would be the white man’s then it would be the white man’s to buy them. He had not discovered that it was necessary for him to make it worth our the other’s the other’s the other’s the other’s the other’s while to buy them, or at least make him see that it was so, or at least make him think that it was so, or at least make him think that it was so, or at least make him think that it was so, or at least make him think that it was so, or to make something else which it would be worth our his his his his his while to buy. I too had woven baskets a kind of basket a kind of basket a kind of basket a kind of basket a kind of basket of a delicate texture, but I had not made it worth any one’s while to buy them. Yet not the less, in my case, was did I think did I think did I think did I think did I think it worth my while to weave them, and and and and and instead of studying how to make it worth men’s while to buy my baskets, I studied rather how to avoid the necessity of selling them. The life which men praise and regard as successful is but one kind. Why should we exaggerate any one kind at the expense of the others? You have not described a man when you have told his race. There are several varieties thereafter among of plants. I am astonished at the security with which certain of men’s enterprises proceed to. I never cooperate, or feel the least sympathy with them. I cannot easily imagine a revolution in which I could be more than a spectator! Toward most of my neighbors I am compelled to feel—like the Chinese philosopher—I am I and you are you. I am glad we can be distinct. others? others? others? others?
32
Economy 32 written: A rewritten: B
A: “using such slender means … not so sad as foolish” was added to the manuscript on a partial leaf.

(Ronald Clapper)
I found in short that they I found in short that they As I have said finding that my fellow-citizens Finding that my fellow-citizens Finding that my fellow-citizens Finding that my fellow-citizens Finding that my fellow-citizens Finding that my fellow-citizens Finding that my fellow-citizens were not likely to offer me any office office room room room room room room room in the court house, or or or or or or or any curacy or living any where else, but I must shift for myself, So I So I I I I I I I turned my face more exclusively than ever to the woods, where I was better known. I determined to go into business at once, without waiting without waiting & not wait and not wait and not wait and not wait and not wait and not wait and not wait to acquire the usual the usual the usual the usual the usual the usual the usual capital, using such slender means as I had already got. using such slender means as I had already got. using such slender means as I had already got. using such slender means as I had already got. using such slender means as I had already got. using such slender means as I had already got. using such slender means as I had already got. using such slender means as I had already got. My object object purpose purpose purpose purpose purpose purpose purpose in going to Walden Pond was not to live cheaply nor to live dearly there, but to transact some private business with the fewest ob stacles; a business to be prevented a business to be prevented to be hindered to be hindered to be hindered to be hindered to be hindered to be hindered to be hindered from accomplishing which for want of a little common sense, a little enterprise and business talent, seemedseemed appeared appeared appeared appeared appeared appeared appeared appeared not so sad as foolish.
33
Economy 33 written: A rewritten: B
B: A fair copy was made of only “I have always endeavored … many parts of the coast almost at the same”). A fair copy was apparently made of the rest of Economy 33 on a leaf (#43) now missing.

(Ronald Clapper)
Strict business habits I have always endeavored to acquire; Strict business habits I have always endeavored to acquire strict business habits; I have always endeavored to acquire strict business habits; I have always endeavored to acquire strict business habits; I have always endeavored to acquire strict business habits; I have always endeavored to acquire strict business habits; I have always endeavored to acquire strict business habits; I have always endeavored to acquire strict business habits; they are indispensable to every man. If your trade is with the Celestial Empire, then some small counting house on the coast, in some Salem harbor, will be fixture enough. You will export such articles as the country affords, purely native products, much ice and pine timber and a little granite, always in native bottoms. These will be good ventures. To oversee all the details yourself in person; to be at once pilot and captain, and owner and underwriter; to buy and sell and keep the accounts; to read every letter received, and write or read every letter sent; to superintend the discharge of imports night and day; to be upon many parts of the coast almost at the same time;—often the richest freight will be discharged upon a Jersey shore; — to be your own telegraph, unweariedly sweeping the horizon, speaking all passing vessels bound coastwise; to keep up a steady despatch of commodities, for the supply of such a distant and exorbitant market; to keep yourself yourself yourself yourself yourself yourself yourself informed of the state of the markets, prospects of war and peace every where, and anticipate the tendencies of trade and civilization,—taking advantage of the results of all exploring expeditions, using new passages and all improvements in navigation;—charts to be studied, the position of reefs and new lights and buoys to be ascertained, and ever, and ever, the logarithmic tables to be corrected, for by the error of some calculator the vessel often splits upon a rock that should have reached a friendly pier,—there is the untold fate of La Perouse; —universal science to be kept pace with, studying the lives of all great discoverers and navigators, great adventurers and merchants, from Han no and the Phœnicians down to our days; day; day; day; day; day; day; day; in fine, account of stock to be taken from time to time, to know how you stand. It is a labor to task the faculties of a man,—such problems of profit and loss, of interest, of tare and tret, and gauging of all kinds in it, as demand a universal knowledge.
34
Economy 34 written: A rewritten: B
B: A fair copy was made of only “be good policy to divulge … face of the earth”. A fair copy was apparently made of the rest of Economy 34 on a leaf (#43) now missing.

(Ronald Clapper)
I have thought that Walden Pond would be a good place for business, not solely on account of the railroad and the ice trade; it offers advantages which it may not be good policy to divulge yet it is the object of this book to divulge them; divulge yet it is the object of this book to divulge them; divulge; divulge; divulge; divulge; divulge; divulge; it is a good port and a good foundation. No Neva marshes to be filled; though I suppose though I suppose that though though though though though though you must every where build on piles of your own driving. It is said that a flood-tide, with a westerly wind, and ice in the Neva, would sweep St. Petersburg from the face of the earth.
35a
Economy 35a written: A rewritten: B

(Ronald Clapper)
As this business was to be entered in into into into into into into into without the usual capital, it may not be easy to conjecture where those means, that will still be indispensable to every such such such such such such such undertaking, were to be obtained. As for Clothing, to come at once to the practical part of the question, to come at once to the practical part of the question, to come at once to the practical part of the question, to come at once to the practical part of the question, to come at once to the practical part of the question, to come at once to the practical part of the question, to come at once to the practical part of the question, to come at once to the practical part of the question, perhaps we are oftener led oftener led oftener led oftener led oftener led oftener led oftener led oftener led oftener by the love of novelty, and a regard for the opinions of men, in procuring it, than by a true utility. It was no doubt the strongest argument against the faith of the Millerites, that most of them continued to build and accumulate property so as to be prepared in case the world should not come to an end—But utility.It was no doubt the strongest argument against the faith of the Millerites, that most of them continued to build and accumulate property so as the be prepared in case the world should not come to an end. From the stock of clothing which some are accustomed to lay in I judge that they do not expect that the world will soon come to an end. But utility. utility. utility. utility. utility. utility. Let him who has work to do reflect reflect recollect recollect recollect recollect recollect recollect recollect that the object of clothing is, first, to retain the animal animal vital vital vital vital vital vital vital heat, and secondly, in this state of society, to cover nakedness, and how much of any important and necessary work might be accomplished without making any addition to his wardrobe! and there will be found old clothes enough in everybody’s garret to last till the Millenium if he only has faith in that. The bank bill that is torn in two will pass if you save the pieces, if you have only got the essential piece with the signatures. Lowell & Manchester think you will let their broadcloth currency go when it is torn, but hold on, have an eye to the signature, clout the back of it, or if it is a transmittendum endorse the name of him from whom you received it and he may judge how much of any important and necessary or important work might may be accomplished without making any addition adding to his wardrobe —aye there will be found old clothes enough in every body’s garret to last till the Millenium. If he only have faith in that. The bank bill that is torn in two will pass if you save the pieces, if you have only got only the essential piece with the signatures & so it is with our garments: they may be much worn & torn & even clouted—and yet be passable. Lowell and Manchester think that you will let their broadcloth currency go when it is torn, but hold on, have an eye to the signature, clout the back of it or aye, the front of it, and if it is a transmittendum, endorse the name of be not ashamed to meet him from whom you received it and he may judge how much of any necessary or important work may be accomplished without adding to his wardrobe. and he may judge how much of any necessary or important work may be accomplished without adding to his wardrobe. and he may judge how much of any necessary or important work may be accomplished without adding to his wardrobe. and he may judge how much of any necessary or important work may be accomplished without adding to his wardrobe. and he may judge how much of any necessary or important work may be accomplished without adding to his wardrobe. and he may judge how much of any necessary or important work may be accomplished without adding to his wardrobe. 35b
Economy 35b written: A rewritten: B
A & B: Economy 35b is preceded by Economy 35c. The present order was interlined in pencil in B

(Ronald Clapper)
Kings and queens who wear a suit but once, though made by some tailor or dress-maker to their majesties, cannot know the comfort of wearing a suit that fits. They are no better than wooden horses to hang the clean clothes on. Every day our garments become more assimilated to us and receive us ourselves and receive ourselves, receiving ourselves, receiving ourselves, receiving ourselves, receiving ourselves, receiving ourselves, receiving the impress of the wearer’s char acter, until we hesitate to lay them aside, without such delay and medical appliances and some such solemnity even as our bodies. and they should not be laid it would be natural not to lay them aside but after such delay and medical appliances and such solemnity as our bodies. until we hesitate to lay them aside, without such delay and medical appliances and some such solemnity even as our bodies. until we hesitate to lay them aside, without such delay and medical appliances and some such solemnity even as our bodies. until we hesitate to lay them aside, without such delay and medical appliances and some such solemnity even as our bodies. until we hesitate to lay them aside, without such delay and medical appliances and some such solemnity even as our bodies. until we hesitate to lay them aside, without such delay and medical appliances and some such solemnity even as our bodies. until we hesitate to lay them aside, without such delay and medical appliances and some such solemnity even as our bodies. 35c
Economy 35c written: A rewritten: B
A & B: Economy 35c precedes Economy 35b.

(Ronald Clapper)
No man ever stood the lower the lower the lower the lower the lower the lower the lower the lower in my estimation for having a patch in his clothes; But there is certainly greater anxiety to have clean and whole but yet I am sure there is certainly greater anxiety commonly to have clean and whole fashionable, or at least clean & unpatched yet I am sure that there is greater anxiety, commonly, to have fashionable, or at least clean and unpatched yet I am sure that there is greater anxiety, commonly, to have fashionable, or at least clean and unpatched yet I am sure that there is greater anxiety, commonly, to have fashionable, or at least clean and unpatched yet I am sure that there is greater anxiety, commonly, to have fashionable, or at least clean and unpatched yet I am sure that there is greater anxiety, commonly, to have fashionable, or at least clean and unpatched yet I am sure that there is greater anxiety, commonly, to have fashionable, or at least clean and unpatched clothes, than to have a sound conscience. though though But But But But But But But even if the rent is not patched patched mended mended, mended, mended, mended, mended, mended, perhaps the worst vice betrayed is improvidence. 35d
Economy 35d written: B rewritten: D
B: B: Economy 35d was interlined in pencil.

(Ronald Clapper)
I sometimes try my friends and acquaintances friends and acquaintances friends and acquaintances acquaintances acquaintances acquaintances acquaintances by such tests as this;—who could wear a patch, say say or say or or or or two extra seams only, over the knee? Most would think would think would think would behave as if they thought believed behave as if they believed behave as if they believed behave as if they believed behave as if they believed that their prospects for life were were were would be would be would be would be would be ruined if they should do it. It would be easier for them to hobble to town with a broken leg than with a broken pantaloon.—Or I ask who could trundle a wheelbarrow through the village streets—few could stand this test pantaloon.—Or I ask who could trundle a wheelbarrow through the village streets—few could stand this test pantaloon.—Or I ask who could trundle a wheelbarrow through the village streets—many could not stand this test. pantaloon. pantaloon. pantaloon. pantaloon. 35e
Economy 35e written: D rewritten: D
D: Economy 35e was interlined in pencil on one of the early leaves in D (#47) that fits the B-C numbering sequence and was later recopied.

(Ronald Clapper)
Often if an accident happens to a gentleman’s legs, they can be mended; but if a similar accident happens to the legs of his pantaloons, there r
Revision note: D1: is usually
is usually
is is is is
no help for it; for he considers, not what is truly respectable, but what is respected. 35f
Economy 35f written: A rewritten: B, D

(Ronald Clapper)
We know after all know after all know know know know know know but few men, a great many coats and breeches. Dress a scarecrow in your last shift, you standing shiftless by, who would not soonest salute the scarecrow? 35g
Economy 35g written: D
D: Economy 35g was interlined in pencil.

(Ronald Clapper)
Passing a cornfield the other day, close by a hat and coat on a stake, I recognized the owner of the farm. He was only a little more weather-beaten than when I saw him last. In fact the back being toward me I missed nothing and thought to myself that if I were a crow I should not fear the presence of him at all. This same coat on a stick made on one the total impression which the farmer never was wont to have had on the other hand. Also, I have frequently mistaken a laborer in the field for a scarecrow. last. last. last. last. 35h
Economy 35h written: D rewritten: G
D: Economy 35h, which was interlined in D, follows Economy 39a.

(Ronald Clapper)
I have heard of a dog that barked at every stranger who approached his master’s premises with clothes on, but was easily quieted by a naked man. man. man. man. How often have I seen a countryman come into town a-shopping in a high-set wagon, whose clothes looked as if they were made before the last war by a maiden sister,—no reproach to her,—his coat hung so high that you could see the whole of his waistcoat pockets beneath it, while the scant coat-tail hastened to a speedy conclusion, like a frog couchant on a bank; the funnel-shaped sleeves halting at a respectable distance from his victorious palms; and the collar hard-rolled and round like a boa constrictor tempting prompting you to run to his rescue, or as if crisped by an agony of heat; his waistcoat striped like a zebra’s skin a kind of coarse grating or gridiron over the furnace of his heart; his pants straight and round as a stove-pipe, into which his boots fitted smoke tight at a height which preserved them guiltless of his country’s mud; and his narrow-brimmed hat towering straight and round like a column to meet the sun in his rising, of equal diameter throughout, the torso of a shaft, or may be a cenotaph to his brains, with a hat as soft as a pussy, across which the dimpling shadows fly as over a field of grain in autumn. thief. 35i
Economy 35i written: B rewritten: D
B: Economy 35i was interlined in pencil.

(Ronald Clapper)
It might be is is is is is is is an interesting question how far men would retain their relative rank if they were to lose be divested to lose be divested to be divested divested divested divested divested of their clothes. Could you, in such a case, tell surely of any procession company company company company company company company of civilized men, which belonged to the most respected class? 35j
Economy 35j written: D rewritten: D
D: Economy 35j was interlined in pencil on one of the early leaves in D (#47) that fits the B-C numbering sequence and was recopied later.

(Ronald Clapper)
When Madam Pfeiffer, in her adventurous travels round the world, from east to west, had got so near home as Asiatic Russia, she says that she felt the necessity of wearing other than a travelling dress, when she went to meet the authorities, for as she remarks for for for for she “was now in a civilized country, where ——— — people are judged of by their clothes.” Even in our democratic New England towns the accidental possession of wealth, and its manifestation in dress and equipage alone, command obtain obtain obtain obtain obtain for the possessor almost universal respect. But they who yield such respect, wherever & however numerous as numerous as numerous as numerous as numerous as they are, are the so far so far so far so far so far heathen, and need to have a missionary sent to them. 35k
Economy 35k written: A rewritten: B, D

(Ronald Clapper)
Above all, clothes brought in Above all, clothes brought in Beside, clothes introduced Beside, clothes introduced Beside, clothes introduced Beside, clothes introduced Beside, clothes introduced Beside, clothes introduced Beside, clothes introduced sewing, a kind of work which which which which which which which you may call endless; a woman’s dress, at least, is never done. For a woman’s dress at least is never done a woman’s dress, at least, is never done. a woman’s dress, at least, is never done. a woman’s dress, at least, is never done. a woman’s dress, at least, is never done. a woman’s dress, at least, is never done. a woman’s dress, at least, is never done.
36
Economy 36 written: A rewritten: B, D
D: A fair copy was made of only “A man who has … an indeterminate period. Old” and “as well as that of mankind”.

(Ronald Clapper)
A man who has at length found out somethingimportant found out something found something found something found something found something found something found something to do will not have have need need need need need need need to get a new suit to do it in; for him the old will do, that has lain dusty in the garret for an indefinite indefinite indeterminate indeterminate indeterminate indeterminate indeterminate indeterminate indeterminate period. Old shoes will serve a hero longer than they have served his valet,— if a hero ever has a valet, if a hero ever has a valet, if a hero ever has a valet, if a hero ever has a valet, if a hero ever has a valet, if a hero ever has a valet, if a hero ever has a valet, —bare feet are the oldest of the oldest of older than older than older than older than older than older than older than shoes, and he can make them do. Only they who go to soirées and legislative halls i.e., a-courting halls i.e., a-courting halls halls halls halls halls halls must have new coats, coats to turn turn change change change change change change change as often as the man turns turns changes changes changes changes changes changes changes in them. If my jacket and trousers, my boots and shoes are fit to worship God in they will do, will they not Dea. Spaulding? If my jacket and trousers, my boots hat and shoes are fit to worship God in they will do, will they not Dea. Spaulding? But if my jacket and trousers, my hat and shoes, are fit to worship God in, they will do; will they not? But if my jacket and trousers, my hat and shoes, are fit to worship God in, they will do; will they not? But if my jacket and trousers, my hat and shoes, are fit to worship God in, they will do; will they not? But if my jacket and trousers, my hat and shoes, are fit to worship God in, they will do; will they not? But if my jacket and trousers, my hat and shoes, are fit to worship God in, they will do; will they not? But if my jacket and trousers, my hat and shoes, are fit to worship God in, they will do; will they not? Who ever saw his old shoes, clothes, clothes, clothes, clothes, clothes, clothes, clothes, —his old coat, actually worn out, resolved into its their their its its its its its its its primitive elements, so that it was not a deed of charity to bestow them them it it it it it it it on some poorer poorer poor poor poor poor poor poor boy, by him perchance perchance perchance perchance perchance perchance perchance to be bestowed on some poorer still, or shall we say richer, who can can could could could could could could could do with less? I should say beware I should say beware I say, beware I say, beware I say, beware I say, beware I say, beware I say, beware of all enterprises that require new clothes, and not rather a new wearer of clothes. If there is not a new man, how can there be a new suit, and not rather a new mis-fit & non-suit? there be a new suit, and not rather a new mis-fit and non-suit the new clothes be made to fit? the new clothes be made to fit? the new clothes be made to fit? the new clothes be made to fit? the new clothes be made to fit? the new clothes be made to fit? the new clothes be made to fit? If you have any enterprise before you, I say try I say try try try try try try try it in your old clothes. All men want, not something to do with , but something to do , or rather something to be . Once more I should advise never to Perhaps we should never Perhaps we should never Perhaps we should never Perhaps we should never Perhaps we should never Perhaps we should never Perhaps we should never Perhaps we should never procure a new suit of clothes, suit of clothes, suit, suit, suit, suit, suit, suit, however ragged or dirty the old, until you we we we we we we we we have so conducted, so enterprised or sailed in some way, that we feel like a new man a new man new men new men new men new men new men new men new men in the old, and that to retain them them it it it it it it it would be like like like like like like like keeping new wine in old bottles. Our moulting season, like that of the fowls, must be a crisis in our lives,—it is well known that the loon retires to solitary ponds to spend it Our moulting season, like that of the fowls, must be a crisis in our lives. The loon retires to solitary ponds to spend it. Our moulting season, like that of the fowls, must be a crisis in our lives. The loon retires to solitary ponds to spend it. Our moulting season, like that of the fowls, must be a crisis in our lives. The loon retires to solitary ponds to spend it. Our moulting season, like that of the fowls, must be a crisis in our lives. The loon retires to solitary ponds to spend it. Our moulting season, like that of the fowls, must be a crisis in our lives. The loon retires to solitary ponds to spend it. Our moulting season, like that of the fowls, must be a crisis in our lives. The loon retires to solitary ponds to spend it. Thus also also also also also also also the snake casts its slough, and the caterpillar its wormy coat, by an internal industry and expansion; for clothes are but our outmost cuticle and mortal coil . for clothes are but our outmost cuticle and mortal coil. for clothes are but our outmost cuticle and mortal coil. for clothes are but our outmost cuticle and mortal coil. for clothes are but our outmost cuticle and mortal coil. for clothes are but our outmost cuticle and mortal coil. for clothes are but our outmost cuticle and mortal coil. for clothes are but our outmost cuticle and mortal coil. Otherwise you will we shall we shall we shall we shall we shall we shall we shall we shall be found sailing under false colors, for clothes are but our outmost cuticle and mortal coil and be inevitably cashiered by your our own & the opinion of mankind. and be inevitably cashiered at last by our own and the opinion as well as that of mankind. and be inevitably cashiered at last by our own opinion, as well as that of mankind. and be inevitably cashiered at last by our own opinion, as well as that of mankind. and be inevitably cashiered at last by our own opinion, as well as that of mankind. and be inevitably cashiered at last by our own opinion, as well as that of mankind. and be inevitably cashiered at last by our own opinion, as well as that of mankind. and be inevitably cashiered at last by our own opinion, as well as that of mankind.
37a
Economy 37a written: D

(Ronald Clapper)
Usually, we We We We We don garment after garment, as if we grew like exogenous plants by addition without. Our outside and often thin and fanciful clothes are our epidermis or false skin, which partakes not of the life of the plant, our life, our life, our life, our life, and may be stripped off here and there without fatal injury; our thicker garments, constantly worn, are our cellular integument, or cortex? or cortex; or cortex; or cortex; or cortex; our but our but our but our but our shirts are our liber or true bark, which cannot be removed without girdling and so destroying the man. I believe that all races do races races races races at some seasons wear something equivalent to the last. shirt. shirt. shirt. shirt. 37b
Economy 37b written: A rewritten: A, B, C, D
A: Economy 37b was canceled and recopied on the top of the recto of a new, unnumbered leaf. Economy 39a and Economy 40a were added to the manuscript beginning on the new leaf and continuing on the old leaf following the canceled version of Economy 37b.
C: A fair copy of Economy 37b was made on a leaf in B that had been taken into C.

(Ronald Clapper)
It is desirable that a man be clad so simply r
Revision note: A1:
that he that he that he that he that he that he
can lay his hands on himself in the dark, and that he live in all respects so compactly and r
Revision note: A1: prepared
prepared
prepared preparedly preparedly preparedly preparedly preparedly preparedly preparedly
that, if an enemy r
Revision note: A1: should take
should take
should take should take take take take take take
the r
Revision note: A1: city,
city,
city, city, city, town, town, town, town,
he can, like the old philosopher, like the old philosopher, like the old philosopher, like the old philosopher, like the old philosopher, like the old philosopher, like the old philosopher, like the old philosopher, walk out the gate empty-handed without anxiety. While one thick garment is, r
Revision note: A1:
for most purposes, for most purposes, for most purposes, for most purposes, for most purposes, for most purposes,
as good as three thin ones, and cheap clothing can be obtained at prices really to suit customers; while r
Revision note: A1: cow hide boots can be bought for 8 shillings a pair—a summer hat for 25 cents and a winter cap for 5 shillings or better may be homemade
cow hide boots can be bought for 8 shillings a pair, a summer hat for 25 cents, and a winter cap for 5 shillings three and nine pence, or a better may be home made
cow-hide boots can be bought for eight shillings a pair, a summer hat for twenty five cents, and a winter cap for three and nine pence, or a better may be home made cow-hide boots can be bought for eight nine shillings a pair, a summer hat for twenty five cents, and a winter cap for three & nine pence, or a better may be home made made at home a thick coat can be bought for five dollars, which will last as many years, (for example, the one I have on.) and a thin one for 90 cents thick pantaloons for 2 dollars (the most durable I ever had cost half a dollar less) cow-hide boots for nine shillings a dollar & a half a pair, a summer hat for twenty-five cents a quarter of a dollar, and a winter cap for three and nine pence, sixty-two & a half cents or a better be made at home a thick coat can be bought for five dollars, which will last as many years, thick pantaloons for two dollars, cowhide boots for a dollar and a half a pair, a summer hat for a quarter of a dollar, and a winter cap for sixty-two and a half cents, or a better be made at home a thick coat can be bought for five dollars, which will last as many years, thick pantaloons for two dollars, cowhide boots for a dollar and a half a pair, a summer hat for a quarter of a dollar, and a winter cap for sixty-two and a half cents, or a better be made at home a thick coat can be bought for five dollars, which will last as many years, thick pantaloons for two dollars, cowhide boots for a dollar and a half a pair, a summer hat for a quarter of a dollar, and a winter cap for sixty-two and a half cents, or a better be made at home a thick coat can be bought for five dollars, which will last as many years, thick pantaloons for two dollars, cowhide boots for a dollar and a half a pair, a summer hat for a quarter of a dollar, and a winter cap for sixty-two and a half cents, or a better be made at home
at a nominal cost, where is he so poor that, clad in such a suit, of his own earning , there will not be found wise men to do him reverence?
38a
Economy 38a written: D rewritten: G

(Ronald Clapper)
When I ask for a garment of a particular form, my tailoress tells me gravely, “They do not make them so now,” not emphasizing the “They” at all, as if she quoted an authority as impersonal as the Fates, and I find it difficult to get made what I want, simply because she cannot believe that I mean what I say, that I am so rash. When I hear this oracular sentence, I am for a moment absorbed in thought, emphasizing to myself each word separately that I may come at the meaning of it, that I may find out by what degree of consanguinity They are related to me, and what authority they may have in an affair which affects me so nearly; that I may find out by what degree of consanguinity They are related to me, and what authority they may have in an affair which affects me so nearly; and, finally, I am inclined to answer her with equal mystery, and without any more emphasis of the “they,”—“It is true, they did not make them so recently, but they do now.” 38b
Economy 38b written: G

(Ronald Clapper)
I just had a coat come home from the tailors. Ah me! who am I that should wear this coat? It was fitted upon one of the Devil’s angels about my size. Of Of what use that this this measuring of me if he did she does she does not measure my character, but only the breadth of my shoulders, as it were a peg to hang it the coat on? This is not the figure that I cut; this is the figure the tailor cuts. Impertinent Fashion whispered in his ear so that he heard no word of mine. As if I had said Not my will, O Fashion, but thine be done? the coat on? We worship not the Graces, nor the Parcæ, but Fashion. She spins and weaves and cuts with full authority. The head monkey at Paris puts on a traveller’s cap, and all the monkeys in America do the same. I sometimes despair of ever getting getting any thing quite simple and honest done in this world by the help of men. They would have to be passed through a powerful press first, to squeeze their old notions out of them, so that they would not soon get upon their legs again, and then there would be some one in the company with a maggot in his head, hatched from an egg deposited there nobody knows when, for they say that for not even fire kills these things, and you would have lost your labor. Nevertheless, we will not forget that some Egyptian wheat is said to have been handed down to us by a mummy.
39a
Economy 39a written: A rewritten: B, D, G

(Ronald Clapper)
Clothing has not in this country or any where in modern times Clothing has not in this country or any where in modern times Clothing has not in this country or any where in modern times On the whole I think it cannot be maintained that wearing clothes dressing has in this or any country On the whole I think it cannot be maintained that wearing clothes dressing has in this or any country On the whole I think it cannot be maintained that wearing clothes dressing has in this or any country On the whole I think it cannot be maintained that dressing has, in this or any country On the whole, I think that it cannot be maintained that dressing has in this or any country risen to the dignity of an art. At present men make shift to wear what they can get. Like shipwrecked sailors, they put on what they can find on the beach, and at a little distance, whether of space or time, whether of space or time, whether of space or time, whether of space or time, whether of space or time, whether of space or time, whether of space or time, whether of space or time, laugh at each other's masquerade. Every generation laughs at the old fashions, but follows religiously the new. We are amused at the pictures costume at the costume at beholding the costume at beholding the costume at beholding the costume at beholding the costume at beholding the costume at beholding the costume of Henry VIII., and and or or or or or or Queen Elizabeth, as much as if they were they were it was that of it was that of it was that of it was that of it was that of it was that of the King and Queen of the Cannibal Islands. When our garments are worn out, we hang them up in the fields to scare crows with, and perhaps the reason why men scare crows is partly in their clothes. Islands. When our garments are worn out, we hang them up in the fields to scare crows with, and perhaps the reason why men scare crows is partly in their clothes. Islands. When our garments are worn out, we hang them up in the fields to scare crows with, and perhaps the reason why men scare crows is partly in their clothes. Islands. When our garments are worn out, we hang them up in the fields to scare crows with, and perhaps the reason why men scare crows is partly in their clothes. Islands. When our garments are worn out, we hang them up in the fields to scare crows with, and perhaps the reason why men scare crows is partly in their clothes. Islands. When our garments are worn out, we hang them up in the fields to scare crows with, and perhaps the reason why men scare crows is partly in their clothes. Islands. When our garments are worn out, we hang them up in the fields to scare crows with, and perhaps the reason why men scare crows is partly in their clothes. Islands. n
Note: An earlier version of this passage appears in A & B in Economy 40a. (R. Clapper)
39b
Economy 39b written: D rewritten: G
G: A fair copy was made of only “All costume off a man is pitiful and grotesque. It is”.

(Ronald Clapper)
It is true, all It is true, all It is true, all It is true, all All costume off a man is pitiful or grotesque. It is only the serious eye peering from and the sincere life passed within it, which restrain laughter and consecrate the costume of any people. Let Harlequin be taken with a fit of the colic in the midst of his buffoonery colic colic colic colic and his trappings will have to serve that mood too. When the soldier is hit by a cannon ball rags are as becoming as purple.
40a
Economy 40a written: A rewritten: B, D

(Ronald Clapper)
The savage and childish savage and childish childish and savage childish and savage childish and savage childish and savage childish and savage childish and savage taste of men and women for new prints and patterns prints and patterns patterns patterns patterns patterns patterns patterns keeps how many men many men many men many men many many many many shaking and squinting through kaleidoscopes that they may discover the particular figure which the skin deep taste of this the skin deep taste of this the skin deep taste of this the skin-deep shallow taste of this this this this this generation requires to-day.—As if, after all, the Ethiopian could change his skin, or the leopard his spots. When our garments are worn out we hang them up in the fields to scare crows with, as if the reason why men scare crows, was in their clothes. I have often experienced the difficulty of getting within gun-shot of a crow.—It is not because they smell powder. to-day.—As if, after all, the Ethiopian could change his skin, or the leopard his spots. When our garments are worn out we hang them up in the fields to scare crows with, as if the reason why men scare crows, was in their clothes. I have often experienced the difficulty of getting within gun-shot of a crow.—It is not because they smell powder. to-day. to-day. to-day. to-day. to-day. to-day. n
Note: A later version of this passage appears in D & G in Economy 39a. (R. Clapper)
40b
Economy 40b written: D

(Ronald Clapper)
I have been told at a certain factory The manufacturers have learned that the taste of the public in this respect was singularly is merely whimsical and that it was impossible to foretell what would suit it. The manufacturers have learned that this taste is merely whimsical. The manufacturers have learned that this taste is merely whimsical. The manufacturers have learned that this taste is merely whimsical. The manufacturers have learned that this taste is merely whimsical. Of two patterns which differed differ differ differ differ differ only by a few threads more or less of a particular color, the one would will will will will will be sold readily, the other would lie lie lie lie lie on the shelf, shelf,thus occasioning great loss to the manufacturer, shelf, shelf, shelf, shelf, though it frequently happens that after the lapse of a season the latter becomes the most fashionable. Comparatively, tattooing is not the hideous custom which it is called. It is not barbarous merely merely merely merely merely because the printing is skin-deep and unalterable.
41
Economy 41 written: A rewritten: B, D

(Ronald Clapper)
I have little hesitation in saying that our factory system is not have little hesitation in saying that our present factory system is not have little hesitation in saying that our present factory system is not do not think cannot believe that our factory system is cannot believe that our factory system is cannot believe that our factory system is cannot believe that our factory system is cannot believe that our factory system is the best mode by which men may be clothed. And be clothed. And get clothing. get clothing. get clothing. get clothing. get clothing. get clothing. The condition of the operatives is becoming every day more and more more and more more more more more more more like that of the English; and it cannot be wondered at, since, as far as I have heard of heard or heard or heard or heard or heard or heard or heard or observed, the principal ob ject is, not that mankind may be well and worthily worthily honestly honestly honestly honestly honestly honestly clad, but, unquestionably, that corporations may be enriched. In the long run mankind men men men men men men men hit only what they aim at. Therefore, though they should fail immediately, they had better aim at something high. Therefore, though they should fail immediately, they had better aim at something high. Therefore, though they should fail immediately, they had better aim at something high. Therefore, though they should fail immediately, they had better aim at something high. Therefore, though they should fail immediately, they had better aim at something high. Therefore, though they should fail immediately, they had better aim at something high.
42a
Economy 42a written: B rewritten: C

(Ronald Clapper)
As for a Shelter, we we I I I I I I will not deny that this is now a necessary of life, though there are instances of men having done without it for long periods in colder countries than this. though there are instances of men having done without it for long periods in colder countries than this. though there are instances of men having done without it for long periods in colder countries than this. though there are instances of men having done without it for long periods in colder countries than this. though there are instances of men having done without it for long periods in colder countries than this. though there are instances of men having done without it for long periods in colder countries than this. 42b
Economy 42b written: B rewritten: B, C, D
B: Economy 42b originally followed Economy 17d. It was later inserted, along with Economy 42a, at the bottom of the leaf containing Economy 40a.]
D: Economy 42b originally followed Economy 44b. When the present order was established, the version of Economy 42b in D was canceled and the leaf from C containing Economy 42b was restored. Some of the revisions on the leaf in C therefore occurred after the copying and canceling of the leaf in D.

(Ronald Clapper)
r
Revision note: B1: Samuel Laing, who is good authority on such this subject, says
although according to Samuel Laing, who is good authority on such a subject
Although according to Samuel Laing The traveller Laing who is good authority says The traveller Samuel Laing, who is good authority, says that Samuel Laing says that Samuel Laing says that Samuel Laing says that Samuel Laing says that
“The Laplander in his skin dress, and in a skin bag which he puts over his head and shoulders, will sleep night after night on the r
Revision note: B1: snow in the fjelde [an immense table land in Norway]
snow in the fjelde
snow in the fjelde [an immense table-land in Norway] snow in the fjelde [an immense table-land in Norway] n
Note: Note: The brackets in this passage are Thoreau’s. (R. Clapper)
snow snow snow snow
—in a degree of cold which would extinguish the life of one exposed to it in any woollen clothing.” r
Revision note: B1: And yet he adds, “They are not hardier than other people.” He had seen them asleep under these circumstances.
And yet he adds, “They are not hardier than other people.” He had seen them asleep under these circumstances.
He had seen them asleep thus And yet he adds, “They are not hardier than other people.” He had seen them asleep under these circumstances. He had seen them asleep under these circumstances and yet he adds “They are not hardier than other people.” He had seen them asleep thus. Yet he adds, “They are not hardier than other people." He had seen them asleep thus. Yet he adds, “They are not hardier than other people." He had seen them asleep thus. Yet he adds, “They are not hardier than other people." He had seen them asleep thus. Yet he adds, “They are not hardier than other people."
42c
Economy 42c written: A rewritten: B, C

(Ronald Clapper)
Man does not live long in this world without finding out the comfort Man does. did not live long in this world without finding out the comfort which But probably Man did not live long in this world without finding out the comfort on the earth without discovering the convenience which But, probably, man did not live long on the earth without discovering the convenience which But, probably, man did not live long on the earth without discovering the convenience which But, probably, man did not live long on the earth without discovering the convenience which But, probably, man did not live long on the earth without discovering the convenience which But, probably, man did not live long on the earth without discovering the convenience which there is in a house, the domestic comforts, which phrase originally originally appears to have originally may have originally may have originally may have originally may have originally may have originally signified the satisfactions of the house more than of the family; though these must be extremely partial and transitory transitory transitory occasional occasional occasional occasional occasional occasional in those climates where the house is associated associated associated in the mind of the inhabitants associated in our thoughts associated in our thoughts associated in our thoughts associated in our thoughts associated in our thoughts with winter or the rainy season chiefly, and for and for and for and and and and and two thirds of the year, except for a parasol, is dispensed with. dispensed with. dispensed with unnecessary. unnecessary. unnecessary. unnecessary. unnecessary. unnecessary. In our climate, in the summer season, the house was formerly only summer season, the house was formerly only summer season, the house it was formerly only almost solely summer, it was formerly almost solely summer, it was formerly almost solely summer, it was formerly almost solely summer, it was formerly almost solely summer, it was formerly almost solely a covering at night. In the Indian gazettes the wigwam the wigwam the a wigwam a wigwam a wigwam a wigwam a wigwam a wigwam was the symbol of a day’s march, and a row of them cut or painted on the bark of a tree signified that so many times they had camped. 42d
Economy 42d written: A rewritten: B, B, C, G
B: An original copy was made of only “limbed and robust but that he … warmth of the affections”. Economy 42d was later recopied in full.
G: A fair copy was made of only “perhaps have nipped his race … warmth of the affections”.

(Ronald Clapper)
Man was not made so large limbed and tough r
Revision note: B1: tough
tough
tough robust robust robust robust robust robust
but that he must seek to narrow his world, and wall in a space such as fits r
Revision note: B1: fits
fits fitted
fitted fitted fitted fitted fitted fitted
him. He found himself all r
Revision note: B1: found himself all
found himself all at first
found himself was at first was at first was at first was at first was at first was at first
bare and out of doors; (and divested of prejudice, out of doors he is still, though that is a country we do not inhabit) r
Revision note: B1:
(and, divested of prejudice, out of doors he is still, though that is a country we do not inhabit.) But
but but but but but but
though this was pleasant enough in serene and warm weather, by daylight, the rainy season and the winter, r
Revision note: B1:
to say nothing of the torrid sun, to say nothing of the torrid sun, to say nothing of the torrid sun, to say nothing of the torrid sun, to say nothing of the torrid sun,
would perhaps have nipped his race in the bud if he had not made haste to clothe himself with the shelter of a house. Adam and Eve, according to the fable, wore the bower before other clothes. Man sought r
Revision note: B1: sought
sought
sought wanted wanted wanted wanted wanted wanted
a home, a place of warmth, r
Revision note: B1:
or comfort, or comfort,
first of physical warmth, then the warmth of the affections.
43a
Economy 43a written: C rewritten: G

(Ronald Clapper)
We can imagine amuse ourselves with imagining a time when perhaps it was a lucky thought of some early wight to take shelter in caves from sun and rain, a first and doubtful step, uncertain whether of instinct or reason but a great deal better than the old way, which yet was not without its advantages. After long experience of pelting storms on the bare skin, and the alternation of sunshine and shade, some inspired wit discovered how to use Nature as a shield against herself, and doubtfully at first, yet impelled by the idea, crept into a cavity in the a rock or perchance so far in that it sufficed. And then some remote descendent of more inventive genius, pitying considering the hard fate of men who were obliged to forego as yet the fair expanding plains and fertile valleys visible afar, and restrict their wanderings to the porous hill country,— some genius nicely discriminating what was essential in the cave, and what adventitious, invented the roof, the cave above ground, the portable cave, invented to stand under a palm tree to extend palm-leaves over head, impermeable to sun and rain, an effectual protection; the record of which remains yet in all languages, in the Latin tecturn in English shelter or roof;—and in the course of ages the conviction was slowly forced upon all men, that the roof was good and should deserved to prevail, nor would the Gods be displeased thereby. And lo! the plains and valleys too were populated peopled, and the dingy cramped and uniformed families of man were dispersed into nimble and spreading nations We can imagine amuse ourselves with imagining a time when perhaps it was a lucky thought of some early wight to take shelter in caves from sun and rain, a first and doubtful step, uncertain whether of instinct or reason but a great deal better than the old way, which yet was not without its advantages. After long experience of pelting storms on the bare skin, and the alternation of sunshine and shade, some inspired wit discovered how to use Nature as a shield against herself, and doubtfully at first, yet impelled by the idea, crept into a cavity in the a rock or perchance so far in that it sufficed. And then some remote descendent of more inventive genius, pitying considering the hard fate of men who were obliged to forego as yet the fair expanding plains and fertile valleys visible afar, and restrict their wanderings to the porous hill country,— some genius nicely discriminating what was essential in the cave, and what adventitious, invented the roof, the cave above ground, the portable cave, invented to stand under a palm tree to extend palm-leaves over head, impermeable to sun and rain, an effectual protection; the record of which remains yet in all languages, in the Latin tecturn in English shelter or roof;—and in the course of ages the conviction was slowly forced upon all men, that the roof was good and should deserved to prevail, nor would the Gods be displeased thereby. And lo! the plains and valleys too were populated peopled, and the dingy cramped and uniformed families of man were dispersed into nimble and spreading nations We can imagine amuse ourselves with imagining a time when perhaps it was a lucky thought of some early wight to take shelter in caves from sun and rain, a first and doubtful step, uncertain whether of instinct or reason but a great deal better than the old way, which yet was not without its advantages. After long experience of pelting storms on the bare skin, and the alternation of sunshine and shade, some inspired wit discovered how to use Nature as a shield against herself, and doubtfully at first, yet impelled by the idea, crept into a cavity in the a rock or perchance so far in that it sufficed. And then some remote descendent of more inventive genius, pitying considering the hard fate of men who were obliged to forego as yet the fair expanding plains and fertile valleys visible afar, and restrict their wanderings to the porous hill country,— some genius nicely discriminating what was essential in the cave, and what adventitious, invented the roof, the cave above ground, the portable cave, invented to stand under a palm tree to extend palm-leaves over head, impermeable to sun and rain, an effectual protection; the record of which remains yet in all languages, in the Latin tecturn in English shelter or roof;—and in the course of ages the conviction was slowly forced upon all men, that the roof was good and should deserved to prevail, nor would the Gods be displeased thereby. And lo! the plains and valleys too were populated peopled, and the dingy cramped and uniformed families of man were dispersed into nimble and spreading nations We can imagine amuse ourselves with imagining a time when perhaps it was a lucky thought of some early wight to take shelter in caves from sun and rain, a first and doubtful step, uncertain whether of instinct or reason but a great deal better than the old way, which yet was not without its advantages. After long experience of pelting storms on the bare skin, and the alternation of sunshine and shade, some inspired wit discovered how to use Nature as a shield against herself, and doubtfully at first, yet impelled by the idea, crept into a cavity in the a rock or perchance so far in that it sufficed. And then some remote descendent of more inventive genius, pitying considering the hard fate of men who were obliged to forego as yet the fair expanding plains and fertile valleys visible afar, and restrict their wanderings to the porous hill country,— some genius nicely discriminating what was essential in the cave, and what adventitious, invented the roof, the cave above ground, the portable cave, invented to stand under a palm tree to extend palm-leaves over head, impermeable to sun and rain, an effectual protection; the record of which remains yet in all languages, in the Latin tecturn in English shelter or roof;—and in the course of ages the conviction was slowly forced upon all men, that the roof was good and should deserved to prevail, nor would the Gods be displeased thereby. And lo! the plains and valleys too were populated peopled, and the dingy cramped and uniformed families of man were dispersed into nimble and spreading nations We may imagine a time when, in the infancy of the human race, a man first some enterprising mortal crept into a hollow in a rock for shelter. I have tried it myself with childish delight, as one may ride on a rail. We may imagine a time when, in the infancy of the human race, some enterprising mortal crept into a hollow in a rock for shelter. Every child begins the world again, to some extent, and loves to stay outdoors, longer than its parents think prudent even in wet & cold. longer than its parents think prudent even in wet & cold. longer than its parents think prudent even in wet & cold. longer than its parents think prudent even in wet & cold. longer than its parents think prudent even in wet & cold. even in wet and cold. It plays house, as well as horse, having an instinct for it. I Who does not remember well the singular I Who does not remember well the singular I Who does not remember well the singular I Who does not remember well the singular I Who does not remember well the singular Who does not remember the interest with which when younger I young he younger I young he younger I young he younger I young he younger I young he young he looked at shelving rocks, or any approach to a cavern, and that sometimes I was impelled to steal away and sit by a fire in a storm cave? cavern, and that sometimes I was impelled to steal away and sit by a fire in a storm cave? cavern, and that sometimes I was impelled to steal away and sit by a fire in a storm cave? cavern, and that sometimes I was impelled to steal away and sit by a fire in a storm cave? cavern, and that sometimes I was impelled to steal away and sit by a fire in a storm cave? cave? It was the natural yearning of that portion, any portion of my our my our my our my our my our our most primitive ancestor which still survived in me us, me us, me us, me us, me us, us. And this invention has been patented in sun and rain to this day—roofs and palm leaves with flickering sunbeams interstreaming, and dates dropping on the table, of bark boughs, of grass and stubble, of linen woven and stretched, of grass and straw of stones & tiles, of boards & shingles, of stones & tiles —and hence it may be, this fair-complexioned Caucasian race so many ages in advance of its sun-burnt brothers. From the cave we have advanced to roofs of palm leaves, of bark and boughs, of linen woven and stretched, of grass and straw, of boards and shingles, of stones and tiles. From the cave we have advanced to roofs of palm leaves, of bark and boughs, of linen woven and stretched, of grass and straw, of boards and shingles, of stones and tiles. From the cave we have advanced to roofs of palm leaves, of bark and boughs, of linen woven and stretched, of grass and straw, of boards and shingles, of stones and tiles. From the cave we have advanced to roofs of palm leaves, of bark and boughs, of linen woven and stretched, of grass and straw, of boards and shingles, of stones and tiles. From the cave we have advanced to roofs of palm leaves, of bark and boughs, of linen woven and stretched, of grass and straw, of boards and shingles, of stones and tiles. 43b
Economy 43b written: B rewritten: B, C
B: Economy 43b originally followed Economy 42d but was later recopied following Economy 42c and preceding Economy 42d.

(Ronald Clapper)
r
Revision note: B1: By the way,
At last, At last, At last, At last, At last, At last,
we know not what it is to live in the open air, r
Revision note: B1:
and and and and and and
our lives are domestic in more senses to a greater extent to a greater extent in more senses in more senses in more senses in more senses in more senses in more senses than we think. From the hearth to the field is a great distance. r
Revision note: B1: I would have a man A poet would speak always as if there were no obstruction, not even a mote or a shadow between him and the celestial bodies. Generally The voices of man sound hoarse and cavernous, tinkling as from out the recesses of caves, enough to frighten bats and toads—not like bells,—not like the music of birds—not a natural melody. Of all the inhabitants of Concord I know not one that dwells in nature. If one were to inhabit her forever, he would never meet a man. This country is not settled nor discovered yet.
Yet the poet will speak it would be well if we were to live & think always as if there were no obstruction, not even a mote or a shadow between him us and the celestial bodies. Generally the voices of men sound hoarse and cavernous, tinkling as from out the recesses of caves, enough to frighten bats and toads—not like bells—not like the music of birds—not a natural melody. Of all the inhabitants of Concord I know not one that dwells in nature. If one were to inhabit her forever, he would never meet a man. This country is not settled nor discovered yet the poet does not speak as from under a roof.
Yet it would be well perhaps if we were to live and think always as if there were no spend more of our days & nights without any obstructions between us and the celestial bodies. The poet does should not speak as so much from under a roof nor does the saint dwell there so long. Birds do not sing in caves, nor do doves cherish their innocence in dovecots. It would be well perhaps if we were to spend more of our days and nights without any obstruction between us and the celestial bodies, if the poet did not speak so much from under a roof, or the saint dwell there so long. Birds do not sing in caves, nor do doves cherish their innocence in dovecots. It would be well perhaps if we were to spend more of our days and nights without any obstruction between us and the celestial bodies, if the poet did not speak so much from under a roof, or the saint dwell there so long. Birds do not sing in caves, nor do doves cherish their innocence in dovecots. It would be well perhaps if we were to spend more of our days and nights without any obstruction between us and the celestial bodies, if the poet did not speak so much from under a roof, or the saint dwell there so long. Birds do not sing in caves, nor do doves cherish their innocence in dovecots. It would be well perhaps if we were to spend more of our days and nights without any obstruction between us and the celestial bodies, if the poet did not speak so much from under a roof, or the saint dwell there so long. Birds do not sing in caves, nor do doves cherish their innocence in dovecots. It would be well perhaps if we were to spend more of our days and nights without any obstruction between us and the celestial bodies, if the poet did not speak so much from under a roof, or the saint dwell there so long. Birds do not sing in caves, nor do doves cherish their innocence in dovecots.
44a
Economy 44a written: A rewritten: B, C

(Ronald Clapper)
As for a Shelter if any one As for a shelter, if any one However, if then any one However, if one However, if one However, if one However, if one However, if one designs to construct a dwelling house, it behooves him to exercise a little Yankee shrewdness and care, shrewdness and care, shrewdness and care, shrewdness, shrewdness, shrewdness, shrewdness, shrewdness, lest after all he find himself in a workhouse, a labyrinth without a clew, without a clew, without a clew, without a clew, without a clew, without a clew, without a clew, without a clew, a museum, an almshouse, a prison, or a splendid mausoleum instead. 44b
Economy 44b written: D
D: Economy 42b follows Economy 44b and precedes Economy 44c.

(Ronald Clapper)
Consider first first first first first how slight a shelter it is is is is is absolutely necessarythat we should have. necessary. necessary. necessary. necessary. 44c
Economy 44c written: D

(Ronald Clapper)
I have seen Penobscot Indians, in this town, living in tents of thin cotton cloth, while the snow was nearly nearly nearly nearly nearly a foot deep around them, and I thought that they would be glad to have it deeper to keep out the wind. In those former days, Formerly, Formerly, Formerly, Formerly, when how to get my living honestly, with freedom left for my proper pursuits, was a question which vexed me even more than it does now, (for unfortunately I am become somewhat callused), for unfortunately I am become somewhat callous, for unfortunately I am become somewhat callous, for unfortunately I am become somewhat callous, for unfortunately I am become somewhat callous, I used to see a large box by the railroad, six feet long by three wide, in which the laborers locked up their tools at night; and it suggested to me that every man who was hard pushed might him get get get get such a one for a dollar, and, having bored a few auger holes in it, to admit the air at least, get into it at night and when it rained and at night, when it rained and at night, when it rained and at night, when it rained and at night, when it rained and at night, and hook down the lid, and so have freedom in his life love and love, and in love, and in love, and in love, and in his soul be free. This did not seem appear appear appear appear appear the worst, nor by any means a despicable alternative. You could sit up as late as you pleased, and, whenever you got up, go abroad without having any creditor any landlord or house-lord any landlord or house-lord any landlord or house-lord any landlord or house-lord any landlord or house-lord dogging you for rent. Many a man is harassed to death to pay the rent of a larger and more luxurious box who would not have frozen to death in such a box as this. I am far from Jesting. I am far from jesting. I am far from jesting. I am far from jesting. I am far from jesting. Economy is a subject that which which which which admits of being treated with levity, but it cannot so be disposed of. 44d
Economy 44d written: A rewritten: B, C

(Ronald Clapper)
A tolerable tolerable tolerable comfortable comfortable comfortable comfortable comfortable house for a rude and hardy race, that lived much much much mostly mostly mostly mostly mostly mostly out of doors, was once made here almost entirely of such materials as Nature furnished ready to their hands. According to the testimony of the first settlers of New England, an Indian wigwam was as comfortable in winter as an English house with all its wainscoting. It was sometimes 40 feet long, and carpeted and lined within & covered without According to the testimony of the first settlers of New England, an Indian wigwam was as comfortable in winter as an English house with all its wainscoting. It was sometimes forty feet long, carpeted and lined within and covered without Gookin, who was superintendent of the Indians subject to the Massachusetts Colony, writing in 1674, says, “The best of their houses are covered very neatly, tight and warm, with barks of trees, slipped from their bodies at such those seasons when the sap is up, and made into great flakes, with pressure of weighty timber, when they are green; and so, becoming dry, they will retain a form suitable for the use they prepare them for. The meaner sort of wigwams are covered with mats which they make of a kind of bulrush, which and are also indifferently tight and warm, but not so good as the former.”—“Some I have seen, of sixty or a hundred feet long and thirty feet broad.”—“I have often lodged in their wigwams, and found them as warm as the best English houses.” He adds that They were commonly carpeted and lined within Gookin, who was superintendent of the Indians subject to the Massachusetts Colony, writing in 1674, says, “The best of their houses are covered very neatly, tight and warm, with barks of trees, slipped from their bodies at those seasons when the sap is up, and made into great flakes, with pressure of weighty timber, when they are green. . . . The meaner sort are covered with mats which they make of a kind of bulrush, and are also indifferently tight and warm, but not so good as the former. . . . Some I have seen, sixty or a hundred feet long and thirty feet broad. . . . I have often lodged in their wigwams, and found them as warm as the best English houses.” He adds, that they were commonly carpeted and lined within Gookin, who was superintendent of the Indians subject to the Massachusetts Colony, writing in 1674, says, “The best of their houses are covered very neatly, tight and warm, with barks of trees, slipped from their bodies at those seasons when the sap is up, and made into great flakes, with pressure of weighty timber, when they are green. . . . The meaner sort are covered with mats which they make of a kind of bulrush, and are also indifferently tight and warm, but not so good as the former. . . . Some I have seen, sixty or a hundred feet long and thirty feet broad. . . . I have often lodged in their wigwams, and found them as warm as the best English houses.” He adds, that they were commonly carpeted and lined within Gookin, who was superintendent of the Indians subject to the Massachusetts Colony, writing in 1674, says, “The best of their houses are covered very neatly, tight and warm, with barks of trees, slipped from their bodies at those seasons when the sap is up, and made into great flakes, with pressure of weighty timber, when they are green. . . . The meaner sort are covered with mats which they make of a kind of bulrush, and are also indifferently tight and warm, but not so good as the former. . . . Some I have seen, sixty or a hundred feet long and thirty feet broad. . . . I have often lodged in their wigwams, and found them as warm as the best English houses.” He adds, that they were commonly carpeted and lined within Gookin, who was superintendent of the Indians subject to the Massachusetts Colony, writing in 1674, says, “The best of their houses are covered very neatly, tight and warm, with barks of trees, slipped from their bodies at those seasons when the sap is up, and made into great flakes, with pressure of weighty timber, when they are green. . . . The meaner sort are covered with mats which they make of a kind of bulrush, and are also indifferently tight and warm, but not so good as the former. . . . Some I have seen, sixty or a hundred feet long and thirty feet broad. . . . I have often lodged in their wigwams, and found them as warm as the best English houses.” He adds, that they were commonly carpeted and lined within Gookin, who was superintendent of the Indians subject to the Massachusetts Colony, writing in 1674, says, “The best of their houses are covered very neatly, tight and warm, with barks of trees, slipped from their bodies at those seasons when the sap is up, and made into great flakes, with pressure of weighty timber, when they are green. . . . The meaner sort are covered with mats which they make of a kind of bulrush, and are also indifferently tight and warm, but not so good as the former. . . . Some I have seen, sixty or a hundred feet long and thirty feet broad. . . . I have often lodged in their wigwams, and found them as warm as the best English houses.” He adds, that they were commonly carpeted and lined within with well-wrought embroidered mats, and were were were were were were were furnished with various utensils. They This was undoubtedly a better wigwam than usual. They The Indians The Indians The Indians The Indians The Indians The Indians The Indians had advanced so far as to regulate the effect of the wind by a mat suspended over the hole in the roof which was in the roof which was & in the roof and in the roof and in the roof and in the roof and in the roof and in the roof and moved by a string. Such a lodge was in the first instance constructed in a day or two at most, at most, at most, at most, at most, at most, at most, and taken down and put up in a few hours; and every family owned one, or its apartment in one. or its apartment in one. or its apartment in one. or its apartment in one. or its apartment in one. or its apartment in one. or its apartment in one.
45a
Economy 45a written: A rewritten: B

(Ronald Clapper)
In the savage state every man man master of a family family family family family family family owns a shelter as good as the best, and sufficient for his ruder his ruder its coarser its coarser its coarser its coarser its coarser its coarser its coarser and simpler wants; but I think that I speak within bounds when I say that, I think that I speak within bounds when I say that, I think that I speak within bounds when I say that, I think that I speak within bounds when I say that, I think that I speak within bounds when I say that, I think that I speak within bounds when I say that, I think that I speak within bounds when I say that, though the birds of the air have their nests, and the foxes their holes, and the savages their wigwams, and the savages their wigwams, and the savages their wigwams, and the savages their wigwams, and the savages their wigwams, and the savages their wigwams, and the savages their wigwams, in modern civilized society not more than one man in a hundred owns man in a hundred owns half the families own half the families own half the families own half the families own half the families own half the families own half the families own a shelter. In the large towns and cities, where civilization especially prevails, the number of those who own a shelter is a very small fraction of the whole. It is notorious that in our the large towns & cities or in those neighborhoods where the most thorough civilization especially prevails, the number of those who own a shelter is a very small fraction of the whole In the large towns and cities, where civilization especially prevails, the number of those who own a shelter is a very small fraction of the whole. In the large towns and cities, where civilization especially prevails, the number of those who own a shelter is a very small fraction of the whole. In the large towns and cities, where civilization especially prevails, the number of those who own a shelter is a very small fraction of the whole. In the large towns and cities, where civilization especially prevails, the number of those who own a shelter is a very small fraction of the whole. In the large towns and cities, where civilization especially prevails, the number of those who own a shelter is a very small fraction of the whole. In the large towns and cities, where civilization especially prevails, the number of those who own a shelter is a very small fraction of the whole. The 99 ninety-nine rest rest rest rest rest rest rest pay an annual tax for this outside garment of all, become become become become become become become become indispensable summer and winter, which would buy a village of Indian wigwams, but now contributes contributes helps helps helps helps helps helps helps to keep them poor as long as they live. 45b
Economy 45b written: C
C: Economy 45b is interlined in pencil.

(Ronald Clapper)
I do not mean to insist here on the disadvantage of hiring compared with owning, but it is evident that the savage owns his shelter because it costs so little, while the civilized man hires his commonly because he cannot afford to own it; nor can he, in the long run, any better afford to hire. 45c
Economy 45c written: A rewritten: B

(Ronald Clapper)
But, answers one, by simply simply merely merely merely merely merely merely merely paying this tax the poorest poorest poor civilized poor civilized poor civilized poor civilized poor civilized poor civilized poor civilized man secures an abode which is a palace compared with the Indian’s. Indian’s savage’s. savage’s. savage’s. savage’s. savage’s. savage’s. savage’s. An annual rent of from 20 twenty twenty-five twenty-five twenty-five twenty-five twenty-five twenty-five twenty-five to a hundred dollars, (these are the country rates) these are the country rates, these are the country rates, these are the country rates, these are the country rates, these are the country rates, these are the country rates, entitles him to all the benefit all the benefit the benefit the benefit the benefit the benefit the benefit the benefit of the improvements of centuries, spacious apartments, clean paint and paper, spacious apartments, clean paint and paper, spacious apartments, clean paint and paper, spacious apartments, clean paint and paper, spacious apartments, clean paint and paper, spacious apartments, clean paint and paper, spacious apartments, clean paint and paper, Rumford fireplace, back plastering, Venetian blinds, copper pump, spring lock, a etc. etc. a commodious cellar and many other things. a commodious cellar, and many other things. a commodious cellar, and many other things. a commodious cellar, and many other things. a commodious cellar, and many other things. a commodious cellar, and many other things. a commodious cellar, and many other things. But how happens it that he who is said to enjoy these things is so commonly a poor civilized man, while the savage, who has them not, is rich as a savage? But how happens it that he who is said to enjoy these things is so commonly a poor civilized man, while the savage, who has them not, is rich as a savage? But how happens it that he who is said to enjoy these things is so commonly a poor civilized man, while the savage, who has them not, is rich as a savage? But how happens it that he who is said to enjoy these things is so commonly a poor civilized man, while the savage, who has them not, is rich as a savage? But how happens it that he who is said to enjoy these things is so commonly a poor civilized man, while the savage, who has them not, is rich as a savage? But how happens it that he who is said to enjoy these things is so commonly a poor civilized man, while the savage, who has them not, is rich as a savage? But how happens it that he who is said to enjoy these things is so commonly a poor civilized man, while the savage, who has them not, is rich as a savage? 45d
Economy 45d written: A rewritten: B
A & B: Economy 45d, 46a, 49a, 49b, and 50 are preceded by Economy 52b, 53a, and 52c.

(Ronald Clapper)
If civilization claims to have made a real advance in the welfare of man, and I think that she has, though only the wise improve their advantages, she must show that she civilization claims to have made it is asserted that civilization is a real advance in the welfare condition of man, and I think that she has it is, though only the wise improve their advantages, she must show that she it must be shown that it it is asserted that civilization is a real advance in the condition of man,—and I think that it is, though only the wise improve their advantages,—it must be shown that it it is asserted that civilization is a real advance in the condition of man,—and I think that it is, though only the wise improve their advantages,—it must be shown that it it is asserted that civilization is a real advance in the condition of man,—and I think that it is, though only the wise improve their advantages,—it must be shown that it it is asserted that civilization is a real advance in the condition of man,—and I think that it is, though only the wise improve their advantages,—it must be shown that it it is asserted that civilization is a real advance in the condition of man,—and I think that it is, though only the wise improve their advantages,—it must be shown that it it is asserted that civilization is a real advance in the condition of man,—and I think that it is, though only the wise improve their advantages,—it must be shown that it has produced better dwellings without making them more costly; and the cost of a thing it will be remembered thingit will must be remembered thing thing thing thing thing thing is the amount of life it requires life it requires what I will call life which is required what I will call life which is required what I will call life which is required what I will call life which is required what I will call life which is required what I will call life which is required what I will call life which is required to be exchanged for it, immediately or in the long run. Is it not possible to invent a house still more convenient and luxurious, which yet all will allow that man cannot afford to pay for? I think that we should not always study to obtain more but sometimes to be content with less. run. Is it not possible to invent a house still more convenient and luxurious, which yet all will allow that man cannot afford to pay for? I think that we should not always study to obtain more but sometimes to be content with less. run. run. run. run. run. run. An average house in this neighborhoodin the country in this neighborhood in this neighborhood in this neighborhood in this neighborhood in this neighborhood in this neighborhood in this neighborhood in this neighborhood costs perhaps 1000 1000 800 eight hundred eight hundred eight hundred eight hundred eight hundred eight hundred dollars, and to lay up this sum will require require take take take take take take take from ten to fifteen years of the laborer’s life, even if he is not encumbered with a family;— for I estimate the just pecuniary value of every man’s labor at one dollar a day, for if some receive more, others receive less for I estimate the just for I have estimated the just estimating the pecuniary value of every man’s labor at one dollar a day, for if some receive more, others receive less; estimating the pecuniary value of every man’s labor at one dollar a day, for if some receive more, others receive less; estimating the pecuniary value of every man’s labor at one dollar a day, for if some receive more, others receive less; estimating the pecuniary value of every man’s labor at one dollar a day, for if some receive more, others receive less; estimating the pecuniary value of every man’s labor at one dollar a day, for if some receive more, others receive less; estimating the pecuniary value of every man’s labor at one dollar a day, for if some receive more, others receive less; estimating the pecuniary value of every man’s labor at one dollar a day, for if some receive more, others receive less; —so that he must have spent more than half his life commonly before his wigwam will be earned. If we suppose him to pay a rent instead, this is but a doubtful choice of evils. Would the savage have been wise to exchange his wigwam for a palace on these terms?
46a
Economy 46a written: A rewritten: B. D

(Ronald Clapper)
It will be perceived that I set down will be perceived may be guessed that I set down refer will be perceived may be guessed that I set down refer may be guessed that I refer set down may be guessed that I reduce almost may be guessed that I reduce almost may be guessed that I reduce almost may be guessed that I reduce almost the whole advantage of holding this superfluous value and clumsy property and clumsy unwieldy property and clumsy unwieldy property and unwieldy property property property property property as a fund in store against the future, as as so so so so so so so far as the individual is concerned, mainly mainly mainly mainly mainly to the score of funeral expenses merely. score of funeral expenses merely. score of funeral expenses merely. score of funeral expenses merely. defraying of funeral expenses. defraying of funeral expenses. defraying of funeral expenses. defraying of funeral expenses. But perhaps a man is not required to bury himself. for even sickness is a beginning to die, & the therefore every doctor’s bill is a funeral expense. But perhaps a man is not required to bury himself But perhaps a man is not required to bury himself. for even sickness is a beginning to die, & the therefore every doctor’s bill is a funeral expense. But perhaps a man is not required to bury himself for even sickness is a beginning to die, and therefore every doctor’s bill is a funeral expense But perhaps a man is not required to bury himself. But perhaps a man is not required to bury himself. But perhaps a man is not required to bury himself. But perhaps a man is not required to bury himself. But perhaps a man is not required to bury himself. 46b
Economy 46b written: D

(Ronald Clapper)
However Nevertheless Nevertheless Nevertheless Nevertheless this points to an important distinction between the civilized man and the savage; and, no doubt, they have designs on us for our benefit, in making the life of a civilized people an institu tion , in which the life of the individual is to a great extent absorbed, in order to preserve and perfect that of the race. But I wish to show at what a sacrifice this advantage is at present obtained, and to suggest that we may possibly so live as to secure all the advantage without suffering any of the disadvantage. What mean ye by saying that the poor ye have always with you, or that the poor ye have always with you, or that the poor ye have always with you, or that the poor ye have always with you, or that the poor ye have always with you, or that the fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children’s teeth are set on edge?
47
Economy 47 written: D

(Ronald Clapper)
“As I live, saith the Lord God, ye shall not have occasion any more to use this proverb in Israel.
48
Economy 48 written: D

(Ronald Clapper)
“Behold all souls are mine; as the soul of the father, so also the soul of the son is mine: the soul that sinneth it shall die.”
49a
Economy 49a written: A rewritten: B, D

(Ronald Clapper)
When I consider my neighbors, the farmers of Concord, who are at least as well off as the other classes, I find that for the most part they have been toiling for 10, 20, or 30 20, 30, or 40 for twenty—thirty—or forty for twenty—thirty—or forty for twenty, thirty, or forty twenty, thirty, or forty twenty, thirty, or forty twenty, thirty, or forty twenty, thirty, or forty years, to pay for their farms, to pay for their farms that they may become the real owners of their farms, which commonly they have inherited with encumbrances, or else bought by means of their credit with hired money, that they may become the real owners of their farms, which commonly they have inherited with encumbrances, or else bought with hired money, that they may become the real owners of their farms, which commonly they have inherited with encumbrances, or else bought with hired money, that they may become the real owners of their farms, which commonly they have inherited with encumbrances, or else bought with hired money, that they may become the real owners of their farms, which commonly they have inherited with encumbrances, or else bought with hired money, that they may become the real owners of their farms, which commonly they have inherited with encumbrances, or else bought with hired money, that they may become the real owners of their farms, which commonly they have inherited with encumbrances, or else bought with hired money, —and we may set down one half at least one third set down regard at least one third set down regard at least one third regard at least one third regard one third regard one third regard one third regard one third of that toil to to as as as as as as as the cost of their houses,— and and but and but and but but but but but commonly they have not paid for them yet. 49b
Economy 49b written: B rewritten: D, D
B: Economy 49b is interlined; “being well acquainted … where they are mortgaged” is not in the manuscript.
D: A fair copy was made of Economy 49b, along with Economy 46a, 49a, 50, and 52b, when Economy 46b, 47, 48, 49d, and 52a were added to the manuscript. A second copy of Economy 49b was made of only “well acquainted with it … true of the farmers”, along with second copies of Economy 49d, 50, 52a, and 52b.

(Ronald Clapper)
It is true, that the the the the the the the encumbrances sometimes outweigh the value of the farm, so that the farm itself becomes one great encumbrance, and still men are a man is a man is a man is a man is a man is a man is found to inherit it, being well acquainted with it, as he says. On applying to the assessors, I r
Revision note: D1: have been am astonished to find
am astonished to find surprised to learn
r
Revision note: D1: have been am astonished to find
am astonished to find surprised to learn