Walden: The Pond in Winter

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Walden: The Pond in Winter

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  • Gray = introduced in some versions as a change, assumed to be same as the base
  • Red = supplied text (interpolated, not in manuscripts)
  • Green = interlined in ink.
  • Olive = interlined in pencil.
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  • Princeton_Ed: Princeton Ed. of Walden
  • Version_A: Walden, Version A (1847)
  • Version_B: Walden, Version B (1849)
  • Version_C: Walden, Version C (1849)
  • Version_D: Walden, Version D (1852)
  • Version_E: Walden, Version E (late 1852 - 1853)
  • Version_F: Walden, Version F (1853-1854)
  • Version_G: Walden, Version G (1854)

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XVersion
The Pond in Winter
1
The Pond in Winter 1 written: F rewritten: F
No chapter title appears in the manuscript apart from the table of contents.
F: A fair copy was made of only “but day comes to reveal … even into the plains of the ether”.

(Ronald Clapper)
I have awaked in the morning Once, after a still winter night, I awoke in the morning After a still winter night I awoke After a still winter night I awoke with the impression that some question had been put to me, and which I had been endeavoring in vain to answer it which I had been endeavoring in vain to answer which I had been endeavoring in vain to answer in my sleep, as what—how—when—where? But there was dawning Nature, in whom all creatures live, looking in at my broad windows with serene and satisfied face, and no question on lips. I awoke to an answered question, to Nature and daylight. The snow lying deep on the earth dotted with young pines, and the very slope of the hill on which my house is placed, seeming seemed seemed seemed to say, Forward! Nature puts no question and answers none which we mortals ask. which we mortals ask. which we mortals ask. She has long ago taken her resolution. "O Prince, our eyes contemplate with admiration and transmit to the soul the wonderful and varied spectacle of this universe. The night veils without doubt a part of this glorious creation; but day comes to reveal to us this great work, which extends from earth even into the plains of the ether."
2a
The Pond in Winter 2a written: F rewritten: F

(Ronald Clapper)
Then to my morning work. First I take an axe and r
Revision note: F1: bucket
bucket ail
pail pail
and go in search of water, if that be not a dream. After a cold and snowy night it needed a divining rod to find it. 2b
The Pond in Winter 2b written: G
G: The Pond in Winter 2b is added on a partial leaf.

(Ronald Clapper)
Every winter the liquid and trembling surface of the pond, which was so sensitive to every breath that was breathed in it breath, and reflected every light and shadow, becomes solid to the depth of a foot or a foot and a half, that it would as to that it will that it will support the heaviest teams, and perchance the snow covers it to an equal depth, and it is not to be distinguished from any level field. Thus like the marmots in the surrounding hills, it too closes its eyelids & becomes partially dormant for 3 months and or more Like the marmots in the surrounding hills, it closes its eye-lids and becomes dormant for three months or more. 2c
The Pond in Winter 2c written: F rewritten: F
F: n the original version of the passage “I cut my way … kneeling to drink, I”, "I" and "my" were originally "you" and "your." The second-person pronouns were canceled, and the first-person pronouns were interlined in pencil.

(Ronald Clapper)
Standing on the snow-covered plain, as if in a pasture amid the hills, I cut my way first through a foot of snow, and then a foot of ice, and open a window under my feet, where, kneeling to drink, I look down into the quiet parlor of the fishes, pervaded by a softened light as through a window of ground glass, with its bright sanded floor the same as in summer; there a perennial waveless serenity reigns as in the amber twilight sky, corresponding to the cool and even temperament of the its the the inhabitants. Heaven is under our feet as well as over our heads.
3a
The Pond in Winter 3a written: A rewritten: F
A: The Pond in Winter 3a is followed by four missing leaves (#193-199), Spring 1c, The Ponds 13, and The Pond in Winter 6a.

(Ronald Clapper)
Early in the morning, while all things are crisp with frost, come men come men come men come men come men come men come men come men come with fishing reels and slender lunch—men of unquestionable faith lunch—men of unquestionable faith lunch—men of unquestionable faith lunch—men of unquestionable faith lunch—men of unquestionable faith lunch, men of unquestionable faith lunch, lunch, and let down their fine lines through the snowy field to take pickerel and perch; Who pursue their trade with as much self-respect as any mechanic or farmer does his—wisely taught by their instinct to follow other fashions and trust other authorities than their townsmen. Wild men who frequent the river meadows and solitary ponds in the horizon—connecting links between towns—who in the goings & comings stitch towns together in parts where they would be ripped and with the hunter race prevent wild animals from multiplying.—Who Who pursue their trade with as much self-respect as any mechanic or farmer does his—wisely taught by their instinct to follow other fashions and trust other authorities than their townsmen. Wild men who frequent the river meadows and solitary ponds in the horizon—connecting links between towns—who in the goings & comings stitch towns together in parts where they would be ripped and with the hunter race prevent wild animals from multiplying.—Who Who pursue their trade with as much self-respect as any mechanic or farmer does his—wisely taught by their instinct to follow other fashions and trust other authorities than their townsmen. Wild men who frequent the river meadows and solitary ponds in the horizon—connecting links between towns—who in the goings & comings stitch towns together in parts where they would be ripped and with the hunter race prevent wild animals from multiplying.—Who Who pursue their trade with as much self-respect as any mechanic or farmer does his—wisely taught by their instinct to follow other fashions and trust other authorities than their townsmen. Wild men who frequent the river meadows and solitary ponds in the horizon—connecting links between towns—who in the goings & comings stitch towns together in parts where they would be ripped and with the hunter race prevent wild animals from multiplying.—Who Who pursue their trade with as much self-respect as any mechanic or farmer does his—wisely taught by their instinct to follow other fashions and trust other authorities than their townsmen. Wild men who frequent the river meadows and solitary ponds in the horizon—connecting links between towns—who in the goings & comings stitch towns together in parts where they would be ripped and with the hunter race prevent wild animals from multiplying.—Who wisely taught by their instinct some of them to follow other fashions, and trust other authorities than their townsmen,—I do not speak of the fishermen of a day,— wild men who by their goings & comings stitch towns together in parts where else they would else be ripped, and with the hunter race prevent wild animals from multiplying. Who They wild men, who instinctively follow other fashions and trust other authorities than their townsmen, and by their goings and comings stitch towns together in parts where else they would be ripped. They wild men, who instinctively follow other fashions and trust other authorities than their townsmen, and by their goings and comings stitch towns together in parts where else they would be ripped. They sit and eat their luncheon in stout fear-naughts on the dry oak leaves on the shore of the pond shore of the pond shore of the pond shore of the pond shore of the pond shore of the pond shore, shore, as wise in natural lore as the citizen is in artificial. Their unconscious yet intimate knowledge of natural history would make a professed naturalist envious. artificial. Their unconscious yet intimate knowledge of natural history would make a professed naturalist envious. artificial. Their unconscious yet intimate knowledge of natural history would make a professed naturalist envious. artificial. Their unconscious yet intimate knowledge of natural history would make a professed naturalist envious. artificial. Their unconscious yet intimate knowledge of natural history would make a professed naturalist envious. artificial. Their unconscious yet intimate knowledge of natural history would make a professed naturalist envious. artificial. artificial. 3b
The Pond in Winter 3b written: F

(Ronald Clapper)
They never consulted with books, and know and can tell much less than they have done. The things which these men they they they practise are said not yet to be known. Here is one fishing for pickerel with grown perch for bait. You look into his pail with wonder as into a summer pond, as if he kept summer locked up at home, or knew where she had retreated. How, pray, did he get these in mid-winter? O, he got worms out of rotten logs since the ground froze, and so he caught them. His life itself passes deeper in Nature than the studies of the naturalist penetrate; himself a subject for the naturalist. The latter raises the moss and bark gently with his knife in search of insects; the former lays open logs to their core with his axe, and moss and bark fly far and wide. He gets his living by barking trees. Such a man has a some some some right to fish, and I love to see Nature carried out in him. The pickerel perch perch perch swallows the grub-worm, the pickerel swallows the perch, and the fisherman swallows the pickerel; and so all the chinks and crannies chinks chinks in the scale of being are filled.
4
The Pond in Winter 4 written: F rewritten: F, F, G
F: The Pond in Winter 4 follows The Pond in Winter 5. A fair copy of The Pond in Winter 4 was made in its present order.
F & G: A fair copy was made of only “primitive mode which some ruder fisherman … half way round the pond”.

(Ronald Clapper)
r
Revision note: F1: Sometimes in my a stroll round the pond I was am amused to observe the very
Sometimes in a stroll Frequently when in such weather I strolled round the pond I am was amused to observe the very
When I strolled around the pond in misty weather I was sometimes amused by the When I strolled around the pond in misty weather I was sometimes amused by the
primitive mode which some yet some some ruder fisherman r
Revision note: F1: had has
has had
had had
adopted. r
Revision note: F1: Over his holes cut 4 or 5 rods apart & an equal distance apart half way round the pond from the shore he places an alder branch
F2: : Over his the narrow holes, cut in the ice four or five rods apart, and an equal distance from the shore, he places would have placed perhaps an alder branch
Over the narrow holes in the ice, four or five rods apart, and an equal distance from the shore he would perhaps have placed an alder branch
He would perhaps have placed an alder branch Over the narrow holes in the ice, which are which were four or 5 rods apart, and an equal distance from the shore, he would perhaps have placed an alder branch He would perhaps have placed alder branches over the narrow holes in the ice, which were four or five rods apart and an equal distance from the shore,
and having passed fastened fastened fastened the end of the line to a r
Revision note: F1: stick about two feet long
F2: stick about two feet long
stick two feet long
stick two feet long stick
to prevent its being pulled through, r
Revision note: F1: he passes
he passes have passed
have passed have passed
the slack line over a twig of the alder, a foot or more above the ice, and r
Revision note: F1: ties
ties tied
tied tied
a dry oak leaf to it, which, being pulled down, r
Revision note: F1: will
will would
would would
show when he r
Revision note: F1: has
has had
had had
a bite. These r
Revision note: F1: alder twigs sometimes dot the surface
F2: alder twigs sometimes dot the surface would loom through the mist at regular intervals as I walked
alder twigs loomed through the mist at regular intervals as I walked
alder twigs alders loomed through the mist at regular intervals as 1 you walked alders loomed through the mist at regular intervals as you walked
half way round the pond.
5
The Pond in Winter 5 written: F

(Ronald Clapper)
Ah, the pickerel of Walden! when I see them lying on the ice, or in the well which the fisherman cuts in the ice, making a little hole to admit the water golden and emerald water, water, I am always surprised by their rare beauty, as if they were fabulous fishes—fresh water dolphins dauphins eldest sons of Walden fishes, fishes, they are so foreign to the streets, even to the woods, foreign as Arabia to our Concord life. They possess a quite quite dazzling and transcendent beauty which separates them far by a wide interval by a wide interval by a wide interval from the cadaverous cod and haddock at least two days old haddock haddock whose fame is trumpeted in our streets. handsome artlovers & gems —they They They are not green like the pines, nor gray like the stones, nor blue like the sky the sky; the sky; but they have, to my eye eyes, eyes, if possible, yet rarer colors, like flowers and flowers and flowers and precious stones, as if they were the pearls, of this great shell—some solid opied & animalized the animalized the animalized or crystals of the Walden water. They, of course, are composed of Walden wholly Walden all over & all through Walden all over and all through; Walden all over and all through; are themselves small themselves small themselves small Waldens in the animal kingdom, Waldenses perhaps dolphins—dauphins eldest sons of Walden, for whose behalf this whole world is but a dauphin edition to study Waldenses. Waldenses. It is surprising that these fishes fish they they are caught here,—that in this deep and capacious spring, far beneath the rattling teams and chaises and tinkling sleighs that travel the Walden road, this great gold and emerald fish swims. I never chanced to see its kind in any market; it would be the cynosure of all eyes there. Easily, Easily, Easily, with a few convulsive quirks, they give up their diluted watery watery watery ghosts, like a mortal translated before his time to the subtile thin thin thin air of heaven.
6a
The Pond in Winter 6a written: A rewritten: F

(Ronald Clapper)
As I was desirous of recovering to recover to recover to recover to recover to recover to recover to recover the long lost bottom of Walden Pond, Before the ice broke up, I surveyed it carefully, before the ice broke up I surveyed it carefully, before the ice broke up, I surveyed it carefully, before the ice broke up, I surveyed it carefully, before the ice broke up, I surveyed it carefully, before the ice broke up, I surveyed it carefully, before the ice broke up, I surveyed it carefully, before the ice broke up, I surveyed it carefully, before the ice broke up, last winter early in 1846 early in ’46, early in ’46, early in ’46, early in ’46, early in ’46, early in ’46, early in ’46, with compass and chain and sounding line, and found it to contain a little over 51½ acres, and to be 102 feet deep in the middle line. line. line. line. line. line. line. 6b
The Pond in Winter 6b written: F
F: The Pond in Winter 6b is apparently a fair copy of material on a missing leaf; “-ably tight bottom at a not unreasonable, though” was added in pencil at the bottom of the leaf.

(Ronald Clapper)
There have been many stories told about the bottom, or rather no bottom, of this pond, which certainly had no foundation for themselves. It is remarkable how long men will believe in the bottomlessness of a pond without taking the trouble to sound it. So is it with many imposing theories in whose dark waters concealing the muddy bottom, we see our own faces reflected—whose shallowness could easily be proved with the sounding line of reason it. it. I have visited two such Bottomless Ponds in one walk in Sudbury—Not to speak of the theories which I heard advanced this neighborhood this neighborhood. this neighborhood. Many have believed that Walden reached quite through to the other side of the globe. Some who have lain flat on the ice for a long time, looking down through the illusive medium, perchance with watery eyes into the bargain, and and and driven to hasty conclusions by the fear of catching cold in their breasts, have seen vast holes "into which a load of hay might be driven," if there were anybody to drive it, it, it, the undoubted source of the Styx and entrance to the Infernal Regions from these parts. Most men do not see much more in a pond than a certain "natural" who lived lives in the skirts of the village, who accosted one of my visitors with—"You have been down to the pond. It looked pooty watery didn’t it?" parts. parts. Others have gone down from the village with a "fifty-six" and a wagon load of inch rope, but yet have failed to find any bottom; for while the "fifty-six" was resting by the way, they were paying out the rope in the vain attempt to fathom their truly measureless measurable capacity of marvellousness. But immeasurable capacity for marvellousness. But immeasurable capacity for marvellousness. But I can assure my readers that Walden has a reasonably tight bottom at a not unreasonable, though at an at an 6c
The Pond in Winter 6c written: E

(Ronald Clapper)
unusual, depth, notwithstanding a little bilge water in the hold, and probably a good deal of that has spattered in, or run in over the edge depth. depth. depth. I fathomed it easily with a cod-line and a stone weighing about about about about a pound and a half, and could tell exactly accurately accurately accurately when the stone left the bottom, by having to pull so much harder before the water got underneath to assist help help help help me. The greatest depth was exactly one hundred and two feet; to which may be added the five feet which it has risen since, making one hundred and seven. This is a remarkable depth for so small an area; yet not an inch of it can be spared by the imagination. What if all ponds were shallow? Would it not react on the minds of men? I am thankful that this pond was made deep and pure for a symbol. While men believe in the infinite some ponds will be thought to be to be to be bottomless.
7a
The Pond in Winter 7a written: A rewritten: E

(Ronald Clapper)
A factory owner, hearing what depth I had found, thought that it could not be true, for, as he was acquainted as he was acquainted as he was acquainted as he was acquainted as he was acquainted judging from his acquaintance judging from his acquaintance judging from his acquaintance with dams, sand would not lie at so steep an angle. But the deepest ponds are not so deep in proportion to their length & breadth as men area as most area as most area as most area as most area as most area as most area as most suppose, and, if drained off drained off drained off drained off drained off drained, drained, drained, would not leave very remarkable valleys. They are not shaped like a cup. This like cups between the hills; for this one, like cups between the hills; for this one, like cups between the hills; for this one, like cups between the hills; for this one, like cups between the hills; for this one, like cups between the hills; for this one, like cups between the hills; for this one, which is so remarkably remarkably remarkably remarkably remarkably unusually unusually unusually unusually deep for its area, appears in a profile section of its bottom which I made profile section of its bottom which I made profile section of its bottom which I made profile section of its bottom which I made vertical section through its center, showing a profile of the bottom & surface, vertical section through its centre vertical section through its centre vertical section through its centre not deeper than a shallow plate. 7b
The Pond in Winter 7b written: D rewritten: F
F: A fair copy was made of only “–serves, "If we could have seen it … compared with its breadth”.

(Ronald Clapper)
Most ponds, being emptied emptied, emptied, emptied, emptied, would leave a meadow no more hollow than we frequently see. William William William William Gilpin, who is so admirable a describer of in all that relates to in all that relates to in all that relates to in all that relates to in all that relates to landscapes, and usually so correct, standing at the head of Loch Fyne, in Scotland, which he describes as "a bay of salt water, sixty or seventy fathoms deep, four miles in breadth," and about fifty miles long, surrounded by mountains, observes, "If we could have seen it immediately after the diluvian crash, or whatever convulsion of Nature occasioned it, before the waters gushed in, what a horrid chasm must it have appeared!
 
So high as heaved the tumid hills, so low
 
Down sunk a hollow bottom, broad, and deep,
 
Capacious bed of waters—."
But if, using the shortest diameter of Loch Fyne, using the shortest diameter of Loch Fyne, using the shortest diameter of Loch Fyne, using the shortest diameter of Loch Fyne, using the shortest diameter of Loch Fyne, we apply these proportions to Walden, which, as we have seen, appears already in a transverse vertical vertical vertical vertical vertical section only like a shallow plate, it will appear four times as shallow. So much for the horrors of the chasm of Loch Fyne when emptied. No doubt many a smiling valley with its extended stretching stretching stretching stretching stretching cornfields occupies exactly such a "horrid chasm," from which the waters have receded, though it requires the insight and the far sight and the far sight and the far sight and the far sight and the far sight of the geologist to convince the unsuspecting inhabitants of the fact. I presume that I have seen many a village situated in the midst of a plain levelled by water where the fact. I presume that I have seen many a village situated in the midst of a plain levelled by water where this fact. I presume that I have seen there is many a village situated in the midst of a plain levelled by water where Often this fact. Often this fact. Often an inquisitive eye might still might still might still may may may detect the shores of a primitive lake in the low horizon hills, and no subsequent elevation of the plain was was was on which he stands have been has been has been necessary to conceal their history ancient use history history. history. history. history. But they who work on the highway know that it is easiest But it is easiest as they who work on the highways know But it is easiest, as they who work on the highways know, But it is easiest, as they who work on the highways know, But it is easiest, as they who work on the highways know, But it is easiest, as they who work on the highways know, to find the hollows by the puddles after a shower. The fact truth fact truth truth amount of it amount of it amount of it is, the imagination, give it the least license, dives deeper and soars higher than Nature goes. So, probably, the depth of the ocean will be found to be very inconsiderable compared with its breadth. So, probably, the depth of the ocean will be found to be very inconsiderable in comparison compared with its breadth or the diameter of the globe So, probably, the depth of the ocean will be found to be very inconsiderable compared with its breadth. So, probably, the depth of the ocean will be found to be very inconsiderable compared with its breadth.
8
The Pond in Winter 8 written: A rewritten: E, F
A: The Pond in Winter 8 ends at “… serving the opposite shore, Cape”. Three missing leaves (#203-207) follow.

(Ronald Clapper)
As I sounded through the ice I could determine the shape of the bottom with greater accuracy than is possible in surveying surveying surveying surveying surveying surveying surveying harbors which do not freeze over, and I was astonished astonished astonished astonished astonished surprised surprised surprised surprised at its general regularity. In the middle deepest part it was more level than middle deepest part it was more level than middle deepest part it was more level than middle deepest part it was more level than deepest part it is more level than deepest part it is there are several acres more level than almost deepest part there are several acres more level than almost deepest part there are several acres more level than almost any field which is exposed to the sun and wind and the wind and wind and wind and wind and wind and wind and wind and plough. In one instance, on a line arbitrarily chosen, it it it it it it the depth the depth did not vary more than one foot in thirty rods; and generally, near the middle, I could calculate the variation for each one hundred feet in any direction beforehand within a few a few a few a few a few three or four three or four three or four inches. Some are accustomed to speak of deep and dangerous holes in running streams and ponds—but these are contrary to the law of nature, the tendency of water to level all inequalities unless there are rocks in the way. Indeed in running streams and ponds—but these are contrary to the law of nature, the tendency of water to level all inequalities unless there are rocks in the way. Indeed in running streams and ponds—but these are contrary to the law of nature, the tendency of water to level all inequalities unless there are rocks in the way. Indeed in running streams and ponds—but these are contrary to the law of nature, the tendency of water to level all inequalities unless there are rocks in the way. Indeed in running streams even in quiet sandy ponds like this, but these would generally speaking be contrary to the laws of nature, the effect of water under those circumstances being to level all inequalities. Indeed even in quiet sandy ponds like this, but these would, generally speaking, be contrary to the laws of nature, the effect of water under these circumstances being is to level all inequalities. Indeed even in quiet sandy ponds like this, but the effect of water under these circumstances is to level all inequalities. even in quiet sandy ponds like this, but the effect of water under these circumstances is to level all inequalities. The regularity of the bottom and its conformity to the shores and the range of the neighboring hills was was was was was was were were so perfect that a distant promontory betrayed itself by in in in in in in in the soundings even in the middle even in the middle even in the middle even in the middle even in the middle quite across the pond quite across the pond, quite across the pond, quite across the pond, and its direction was could be could be could be could be could be could be could be determined by observing the opposite shore. Cape becomes bar, and plain shoal, and valley and gorge deep water and channel.
9
The Pond in Winter 9 written: E rewritten: F

(Ronald Clapper)
When I had mapped the pond by the scale of ten rods to an inch, and put down the soundings, more than a hundred in all, I observed this singular coincidence pointing to a general law I observed this singular remarkable coincidence pointing to a general law I observed this remarkable coincidence. I observed this remarkable coincidence. Having noticed that the number indicating the greatest depth was near apparently in apparently in apparently in apparently in the centre of the map, I laid a ruler rule rule rule rule on the map lengthwise, and then breadthwise, and found, to my surprise, that the line of greatest length intersected the line of greatest breadth at the point of greatest depth, with mathematical accuracy for aught I could see notwithstanding that the middle was so nearly level & though the outline of the pond quite irregular far from regular notwithstanding that the middle was is so nearly level, and though the outline of the pond far from regular notwithstanding that the middle is so nearly level, the outline of the pond far from regular, notwithstanding that the middle is so nearly level, the outline of the pond far from regular, and the extreme length and breadth were got by measuring into the coves; and I said to myself, Who knows but this hint would conduct to the deepest part of the ocean as well as of a pond or pond or pond or puddle? This too should be the law for mountains, allowing, perhaps, for the greater prevalence of disturbing forces, for we may regard a pond as in many respects a hill reversed, and This too should be the law for mountains, allowing, perhaps, for the greater prevalence of disturbing forces, for we may so regard a pond as, in many respects a hill reversed, & Is not this the rule also for the height of mountains also, regarded as the opposite of valleys? Is not this the rule also for the height of mountains, regarded as the opposite of valleys? Is not this the rule also for the height of mountains, regarded as the opposite of valleys? We know that a hill is not highest at its narrowest point art part. part. part.
10a
The Pond in Winter 10a written: E rewritten: F, F

(Ronald Clapper)
Of five coves, three, or all which had been sounded, were observed to have a bar quite across their mouths and deeper water within, so that the bay not only tended to be an expansion of water within the land superficially but also a basin horizontally but also vertically & to form a basin or independent pond r
Revision note: F1: not only tended to be an expansion of water within the land horizontally, but also vertically & to form a basin or independent pond
not only tended to be an expansion of water within the land not only horizontally, but also vertically, & to form a basin or independent pond
tended to be an expansion of water within the land not only horizontally but vertically, and to form a basin or independent pond, tended to be an expansion of water within the land not only horizontally but vertically, and to form a basin or independent pond,
the direction of the two capes showing the course of the bar. This rule too is universal. I believe that bar. This rule too is universal. I believe that bar. bar. Every harbor 10b
The Pond in Winter 10b written: F rewritten: F

(Ronald Clapper)
on the seacoast also on the sea-coast, also, on the sea-coast, also, has its bar at its entrance. In proportion as the mouth of the cove was wider compared with its length, the water over the bar was deeper compared with that in the basin. Given, then, the length and breadth of the cove, and the r
Revision note: F1: height and character and height
height and character
character character
of the surrounding shore, and r
Revision note: F1: we have I have found that I had
I found that I had you have
you have you have
almost elements enough to make out a formula for all cases.
11a
The Pond in Winter 11a written: F rewritten: F

(Ronald Clapper)
r
Revision note: F1: Wishing
Wishing In order
In order In order
to see how nearly I could guess, with this experience, at the deepest point in a 11b
The Pond in Winter 11b written: E rewritten: F, F

(Ronald Clapper)
pond, by observing the outlines of its surface and the character of its shores alone, I made a plan of White Pond, which contains about forty r
Revision note: F1: forty
forty forty-one
forty-one forty-one
acres, and, like this, has no island in it, nor any visible inlet or outlet; and as the line of greatest breadth fell very near the line of least breadth, I marked a point still further where two opposite capes approached each other & 2 opposite bays receded I ventured to mark a point a short distance where two opposite capes approached each other and two opposite bays receded, I ventured to mark a point a short distance where two opposite capes approached each other and two opposite bays receded, I ventured to mark a point a short distance where two opposite capes approached each other and two opposite bays receded, I ventured to mark a point a short distance from the latter r
Revision note: F1:
line,
line, line,
but still on the line of greatest length, as the deepest. On sounding the deepest point r
Revision note: F1: The deepest point
The deepest point art
The deepest part The deepest part
was found to be within one hundred feet of this the one indicated yet proves that I had made the right kind of correction this but still farther in the direction which I had chosen and there the depth was only one foot greater deeper than the former, namely 60 feet. Even from the deepest parts of Walden I drew up on my sounding stone a bright green weed which was very agreeable to behold in midwinter r
Revision note: F1: this, but still further in the direction which I had chosen, and it was was only one foot deeper than the former, namely 60 feet
this, still farther in the direction to which I had chosen inclined, & was only one foot deeper, namely, 60 feet
this, still farther in the direction to which I had inclined, and was only one foot deeper, namely, sixty feet. this, still farther in the direction to which I had inclined, and was only one foot deeper, namely, sixty feet.
r
Revision note: F1:
Of course, a stream running through, or an island in the pond, would make the problem much more complicated.
Of course, a stream running through, or an island in the pond, would make the problem much more complicated. Of course, a stream running through, or an island in the pond, would make the problem much more complicated.
12
The Pond in Winter 12 written: F rewritten: F, F

(Ronald Clapper)
Of course if If If we knew all the laws of Nature, we should need only one fact, or the description of one actual phenomenon, to infer all the particular results at that point. r
Revision note: F1: As it is we know only a few laws, though important ones
F2: As it is we know only a few laws, though important ones
As it is Now we know only a few laws, though important ones,
Now we know only a few laws, Now we know only a few laws,
and our result is vitiated, not, of course, of course, by any confusion or irregularity in Nature, but by our ignorance of essential elements in the calculation. r
Revision note: F1: We are wont to confine our notions of law and harmony to those instances only which
F2: We are wont to confine our notions of law and harmony to those instances only which
We are wont to confine our notions of law and harmony are commonly confined to those instances only which
Our notions of law and harmony are commonly confined to those instances which Our notions of law and harmony are commonly confined to those instances which
we detect; but the harmony which results from a r
Revision note: F1: still
F2: still
still far
far far
greater number of seemingly conflicting, but really r
Revision note: F1: harmonious
F2: harmonious
harmonious concurring
concurring, concurring,
laws, which we have not detected, is still more wonderful. The particular laws are as our points of view, as, to the traveller, a mountain outline varies with every step, and it has an infinite number of profiles, though absolutely but one form. Even r
Revision note: F1: though cleft in twain or bored through, it cannot be
F2: though cleft in twain or bored through, it cannot be
though when cleft in twain or bored through, it cannot be is not
when cleft or bored through it is not when cleft or bored through it is not
comprehended in its entireness.
13a
The Pond in Winter 13a written: E rewritten: F, G

(Ronald Clapper)
But as there is no exclusively physical nor exclusively moral law— so this is as true in ethics as in physics—that is it is the rule though not the exception. It not only guides Such a rule would not only guide us to toward the heart in man & sun in the system & the heart in man But what I have observed of the pond is no less true in morals. Such a rule would of the two diameters not only guide guides us toward the sun in the system, & toward the heart in man What I have observed of the pond is no less true in morals ethics. Such a rule of the two diameters not only guides us toward the sun in the system and the heart in man What I have observed of the pond is no less true in ethics. It is the law of average. Such a rule of the two diameters not only guides us toward the sun in the system and the heart in man, but draw lines through the length and breadth of the aggregate of a man’s particular daily behaviors and waves of life into his coves and inlets, and where they intersect will be the height or depth of his character. 13b
The Pond in Winter 13b written: F rewritten: G
F: The Pond in Winter 13b follows The Pond in Winter 13d.

(Ronald Clapper)
and perhaps we only need and Perhaps we only need Perhaps we need only to know how a man’s shores his shores his shores trend and his adjacent country or circumstances, to infer thus infer thus infer his depth and concealed bottom. All this experience our daily intercourse supplies, and our instinct is continually applying the rule bottom. This experience our daily intercourse supplies, and our instinct is continually applying the rule bottom. 13c
The Pond in Winter 13c written: G
G: The Pond in Winter 13c follows The Pond in Winter 13d and precedes The Pond in Winter 13e.

(Ronald Clapper)
Are we Is he If he is surrounded by mountainous circumstances, an Achillean shore, to whose peaks we look up, whose peaks over-shadow and which are reflected in our bosoms his bosom whose peaks overshadow and are reflected in his bosom, they suggest a corresponding depth in him us him. But a low and smooth shore proves him us him shallow on that side. So In our bodies In our bodies, a bold projecting brow falls off to and indicates a corresponding depth of thought. 13d
The Pond in Winter 13d written: F rewritten: G
F: “These inclinations are not whimsical … the ancient axes of elevation” does not appear in the manuscript.
G: The Pond in Winter 13d follows The Pond in Winter 13b and precedes The Pond in Winter 13c.

(Ronald Clapper)
So too Also Also there is a bar across the entrance of our every cove, or particular inclination; each is our harbor for a season, in which we are detained and partially land-locked. These inclinations are not whimsical commonly usually commonly usually usually, but their form, and size and size size, and direction are determined by the promontories of the shore, the ancient axes of elevation. 13e
The Pond in Winter 13e written: F rewritten: G

(Ronald Clapper)
When this bar is gradually increased by storms, or tides, or by sediment deposited by currents, so that it rises to the surface or tides, or by sediment deposited by currents, so that it rises to the surface, or the same result is produced by the subsidence of the waters tides, or currents, or there is a subsidence of the waters, so that it reaches to the surface tides, or currents, or there is a subsidence of the waters, so that it reaches to the surface, that which was at first but an inclination in the shore in which a thought was harbored becomes an individual lake, cut off from the dividual ocean,—as from the entral polypus ocean, ocean, wherein the thought secures its own conditions, changes, perchance perchance perhaps perhaps, from salt to fresh, becomes a sweet sea, dead sea, or a marsh. At the advent of each individual into this life, may we not presume presume suppose suppose that such a bar has risen to the surface somewhere, and the dry land appeared somewhere, and the dry land appeared somewhere? It is true, we are such poor & timid poor poor navigators that our thoughts, for the most part, stand off and on upon a harborless coast, are conversant only with the bights of the bays of poesy, or steer for the public ports of entry, and go into the dry docks of science, where they merely refit for this world, and no natural currents concur to individualize them.
14
The Pond in Winter 14 written: E rewritten: F, G
E: “One has suggested … carried through by the current” is interlined.
F: A fair copy was made of only “As for the inlet or outlet … need soldering till they find”.
G: A fair copy was made of only “As for the inlet or outlet … "leach hole" should be found”.

(Ronald Clapper)
As for the inlet or outlet of the pond Walden Walden, Walden, Walden, I have not discovered any but rain and snow and evaporation, though I have no doubt that perhaps perhaps, perhaps, perhaps, with a thermometer and sounding line sounding line sounding a line a line, this can be done such places may be found. Where such places may be found, for where such places may be found, for where such places may be found, for where the water flows into the pond it will probably be coldest in summer and warmest in winter , and it can easily be obtained from different parts of the bottom winter. winter. winter. When the ice-men were at work here in ’46-7, the cakes sent to the shore were one day rejected by those who were stacking them up there, not being thick enough to lie side by side with the rest; and the cakes sent to the shore were one day rejected by those who were stacking them up there, not being thick enough to lie side by side with the rest; and they they they the cutters thus the cutters thus discovered that the ice over a small space was two or three inches thinner than elsewhere, which made them think that there was an inlet there. They also showed me in another place in another place in another place in another place what they thought was a "leach-hole," through which the pond leaked out under a hill into a neighboring meadow, pushing me out on a cake of ice to see it. It was a small hole or cavity at the bottom hole or cavity at the bottom hole or cavity cavity under ten feet of water; but I think that that I can warrant the pond not to need soldering till they can find can find can find find a worse leak than that. If such a leach hole should be found there one has suggested that One has suggested, that if such a "leach hole" should be found, One has suggested, that if such a "leach hole" should be found, One has suggested, that if such a "leach hole" should be found, its connection with the meadow, if any existed, might be proved by conveying some colored powder or sawdust to the bottom of the pond mouth of the hole mouth of the hole, mouth of the hole, mouth of the hole, and then putting a strainer over the spring in the meadow, which would catch some of the powder articles particles particles particles carried through by the current.
15
The Pond in Winter 15 written: E rewritten: F
E: The Pond in Winter 15 is followed by The Pond in Winter 19a.
F: A fair copy was made of only -w“hat like cutting a hole in the bottom … on the trees or hill-side”.

(Ronald Clapper)
While surveying I observed that While I was surveying, While I was surveying, While I was surveying, the ice, which was more than a foot sixteen inches sixteen inches sixteen inches thick, undulated under a slight wind like waves water. water. water. It is well known that a level cannot be used on ice. At one rod from the shore its greatest fluctuation, when observed by means of a level on land directed toward a graduated staff on the ice, was three quarters of an inch, though the ice appeared firmly attached to the shore. It was probably greater in the middle. t Nicer instruments might perhaps Who knows but if our instruments were nice enough we might Who knows but if our instruments were delicate enough we might Who knows but if our instruments were delicate enough we might Who knows but if our instruments were delicate enough we might detect an undulation in the crust of the earth? When two legs of the instrument rested were my level were my level were my level were on the shore and the third on the ice, and the sights were directed over the latter, a rise or fall of the ice of an almost almost almost almost infinitesimal amount made a difference of several feet on a tree across the pond, and this suggested how I could easily calculate the slightest conceivable motion there and what would be absolute rest to most tests pond. pond. pond. When I began to cut holes for sounding, there were three or four inches of water on the ice under a deep snow which had sunk it thus far though the ice it was 15 inches thick far; far; far; but the water began immediately to run into these holes, and continued to run for two days in deep streams, which wore away the ice on every side, and contributed essentially, if not mainly, if not mainly, if not mainly, if not mainly, to dry the surface of the pond; for, as the water ran in, it raised and floated the ice. This was a little somewhat somewhat somewhat somewhat like cutting a hole in the bottom of your ship your a ship a ship a ship to let the water out. When such holes freeze over freeze, freeze, freeze, and a rain succeeds, and finally a new freezing forms a fresh smooth surface ice ice ice ice over all, it is beautifully mottled internally by dark figures, shaped somewhat like a spider's web, what you may call ice rosettes, produced by what you may call ice rosettes, produced by what you may call ice rosettes, produced by the channels worn by the water flowing from all sides to a center. This is a very common phenomenon which one of my neighbors calls "rosettes" center. This is a very common phenomenon which one of my neighbors calls "rosettes" centre. centre. Sometimes, also, also, also, when the ice was covered with shallow puddles, I saw a double shadow of myself, one standing on the head of the other, one on the ice, the other on the bank trees or hill side trees or hill-side. trees or hill-side. trees or hill-side.
16a
The Pond in Winter 16a written: A rewritten: A, E, F

(Ronald Clapper)
Here too in winter days—while While While While While While While While yet it is cold January, and snow and ice are thick and solid, and solid, and solid, and solid, and solid, and solid, and solid, comes the prudent landlord comes the prudent landlord comes the prudent landlord comes the prudent landlord comes the prudent landlord comes the prudent landlord comes the prudent landlord comes the prudent landlord comes from the village to get ice to cool his summer drink; impressively, even pathetically wise, to foresee the thirst and heat thirst and heat thirst and heat thirst and heat thirst and heat and thirst heat and thirst heat and thirst heat and thirst of July now now now now now now now in January,— wearing a thick coat and mittens! wearing a thick coat and mittens! wearing a thick coat and mittens! wearing a thick coat and mittens! wearing a thick coat and mittens! wearing a thick coat and mittens! wearing a thick coat and mittens! when so many things are not provided for. Perchance Perchance It may be that It may be that It may be that he lays up no treasures in this world which will cool his summer drink in the next. He cuts and saws the solid pond, unroofs the house of fishes, and carts off their very element and air, held fast with with with with with with by by by chains and stakes like corded wood, r
Revision note: A1: all through
all through
r
Revision note: A1: all through
all through
r
Revision note: A1: all through
all through
r
Revision note: A1: all through
all through
r
Revision note: A1: all through
all through
all through through through
the favoring winter air, to wintry cellars, to underlie the summer there. 16b
The Pond in Winter 16b written: A rewritten: A, F
A: All but “It looks like solidified azure, as, far off” of the original version is contained on three missing leaves (#183-187) that follow.
F: A fair copy was made of only “It looks like solidi-”.

(Ronald Clapper)
It looks r
Revision note: A1: blue as amethyst or
blue as amethyst or like
like like like like like like like
solidified azure, r
Revision note: A1: afar off as
afar off as
as, far off, as, far off, as, far off, as, far off, as, far off, as, far off, as, far off,
it is drawn through the streets. They are a merry race, these ice cutters are a merry race These ice-cutters are a merry race, These ice-cutters are a merry race, These ice-cutters are a merry race, These ice-cutters are a merry race, These ice-cutters are a merry race, These ice-cutters are a merry race, These ice-cutters are a merry race, full of jest and sport, and when I went among them they were wont to invite me to saw pit-fashion with them, I standing underneath.
17a
The Pond in Winter 17a written: A

(Ronald Clapper)
This winter, as you all know, In the winter of 46 & 7 In the winter of ’46-7 In the winter of ’46-7 In the winter of ’46-7 In the winter of ’46-7 In the winter of ’46-7 In the winter of ’46-7 In the winter of ’46-7 there came a hundred men of Hyperborean extraction swoop down on to our pond one morning, with a shriek from the engine—with with with with with with with with many car-loads of ungainly-looking farming tools, sleds, ploughs, drill-barrows, turf-knives, spades, saws, rakes, and each man man man man man man man man was armed with a double-pointed pike-staff, such as is are is is is is is is is not described in the New-England Farmer or the Cultivator. At first I I I I I I I I did not know whether they had come to sow a crop of winter rye, or some other kind of grain recently introduced from Iceland. As I saw no manure, I judged that they meant to skim the land, as I had done— thinking the soil was deep and had lain fallow long enough —as I had done with my field the year before as I had done, thinking the soil was deep and had lain fallow long enough, as I had done, thinking the soil was deep and had lain fallow long enough, as I had done, thinking the soil was deep and had lain fallow long enough, as I had done, thinking the soil was deep and had lain fallow long enough, as I had done, thinking the soil was deep and had lain fallow long enough, as I had done, thinking the soil was deep and had lain fallow long enough, as I had done, thinking the soil was deep and had lain fallow long enough, They said that a gentleman farmer a Mr Tudor gentleman farmer, gentleman farmer, gentleman farmer, gentleman farmer, gentleman farmer, gentleman farmer, gentleman farmer, who was behind the scenes, wanted to double his money, which, as I understood, amounted to half a million already; but in order to cover each one of his dollars with another, he took off the only coat, and ay ay, ay, ay, ay, ay, ay, ay, the skin itself, of Walden Pond in the midst of a hard winter. They went to work at once, ploughing, harrowing, rolling, furrowing, in admirable order, as if they were bent on making this a model farm; but when I was looking sharp to see what kind of seed they dropped into the furrow, a gang of fellows by my side suddenly began to book up the virgin mould itself, with a peculiar jerk, clean down to the sand, or rather 17b
The Pond in Winter 17b written: E rewritten: F
F: A fair copy was made of only “So they came and went every day … had to be cut out”.

(Ronald Clapper)
the water,—for it was a very springy soil,—indeed all the there was, and haul it away on sleds, and then I guessed that they must be cutting peat in a bog. So they went & came & went came and went came and went came and went every day, with a peculiar shriek of the whistle to and from some part of the northern of the whistle from the locomotive from & to some part of the northern from the locomotive, from and to some point of the from the locomotive, from and to some point of the polar regions, as it seemed to me, like a flock of arctic snow-birds. But sometimes Squaw Walden had her revenge, and a hired man, walking behind his team, slipped through a crack in the ground down toward Tartarus, and he who was so brave before suddenly became but the ninth part of a man, and almost and almost almost almost gave up his animal heat, and was glad to take refuge in my house, and acknowledge acknowledged acknowledged acknowledged that there was some virtue in a stove; or sometimes the frozen soil took a piece of steel out of a ploughshare, or a plough got set in the furrow and had to be cut out again out again out. out.
18a
The Pond in Winter 18a written: A rewritten: E, F

(Ronald Clapper)
in the almanac—his shanty. They told me that in a good day they told me they could get out a thousand tons which was the yield of about one acre & contained 10000 tons finally n
Note: The Pond in Winter 18a is followed by Economy 106b. (R. Clapper)
But to speak without jesting literally But to speak without jesting literally But to speak without jesting literally But to speak without jesting literally But to speak without jesting literally But to speak literally to speak literally, to speak literally, a hundred Irishmen, with Yankee overseers, came from Cambridge every day to get out Walden ice and stack it up on the shore in the open air. When it was covered with snow a dozen men were incessantly engaged scraping this off over an area of several acres with various kinds of scrapers drawn by horses. Two followed with a horse & a slight cutter, one carefully leading the horse while the other guided the cutter within a few inches of a rope drawn straight across the ice for 10 or a dozen rods. Such a groove was made on two sides of a parallelogram. Then with various kinds of gage cutters, that is cutters connected by a frame with parallel smooth or toothless plates at a proper distance on one or both sides, running in the last made groove the whole area was finally grooved in squares 22 inches on a side, yet not so weakened but that horses could work on it. I was told that the best ice cutters or plows cost over a hundred dollars, and cut 4 inches at a bout but it was hard work for a horse. Other men were employed with whipsaws cutting this area into long strips the width of a cake; half a dozen poling the strips along a narrow canal to the loading place—near which one stood with a spade-like chisel to cut off the "cakes," which consisted of two squares & therefore measured 22 by 44 inches. These cakes were to be finally divided by the shallow groove at the loading aboard ship, so that one man might handle them. At the end of the canal were a dozen or 15 men half on each side incessantly hauling the cakes up a narrow iron framework or railway, sunk at one end on wood and resting on a sled at the other, with pike staffs which had a double point, one bent for hauling, the other straight for pushing. Each sled held 14 or 15 cakes which weighed about 2 tons and were drawn by one horse over the ice to the shore, where they & these being sledded to the shore Walden ice and stack it up on the shore in the open air. When it was covered with snow a dozen men were incessantly engaged scraping this off over an area of several acres with various kinds of scrapers drawn by horses. Two followed with a horse & a slight cutter, one carefully leading the horse while the other guided the cutter within a few inches of a rope drawn straight across the ice for 10 or a dozen rods. Such a groove was made on two sides of a parallelogram. Then with various kinds of gage cutters, that is cutters connected by a frame with parallel smooth or toothless plates at a proper distance on one or both sides, running in the last made groove the whole area was finally grooved in squares 22 inches on a side, yet not so weakened but that horses could work on it. I was told that the best ice cutters or plows cost over a hundred dollars, and cut 4 inches at a bout but it was hard work for a horse. Other men were employed with whipsaws cutting this area into long strips the width of a cake; half a dozen poling the strips along a narrow canal to the loading place—near which one stood with a spade-like chisel to cut off the "cakes," which consisted of two squares & therefore measured 22 by 44 inches. These cakes were to be finally divided by the shallow groove at the loading aboard ship, so that one man might handle them. At the end of the canal were a dozen or 15 men half on each side incessantly hauling the cakes up a narrow iron framework or railway, sunk at one end on wood and resting on a sled at the other, with pike staffs which had a double point, one bent for hauling, the other straight for pushing. Each sled held 14 or 15 cakes which weighed about 2 tons and were drawn by one horse over the ice to the shore, where they & these being sledded to the shore Walden ice and stack it up on the shore in the open air. When it was covered with snow a dozen men were incessantly engaged scraping this off over an area of several acres with various kinds of scrapers drawn by horses. Two followed with a horse & a slight cutter, one carefully leading the horse while the other guided the cutter within a few inches of a rope drawn straight across the ice for 10 or a dozen rods. Such a groove was made on two sides of a parallelogram. Then with various kinds of gage cutters, that is cutters connected by a frame with parallel smooth or toothless plates at a proper distance on one or both sides, running in the last made groove the whole area was finally grooved in squares 22 inches on a side, yet not so weakened but that horses could work on it. I was told that the best ice cutters or plows cost over a hundred dollars, and cut 4 inches at a bout but it was hard work for a horse. Other men were employed with whipsaws cutting this area into long strips the width of a cake; half a dozen poling the strips along a narrow canal to the loading place—near which one stood with a spade-like chisel to cut off the "cakes," which consisted of two squares & therefore measured 22 by 44 inches. These cakes were to be finally divided by the shallow groove at the loading aboard ship, so that one man might handle them. At the end of the canal were a dozen or 15 men half on each side incessantly hauling the cakes up a narrow iron framework or railway, sunk at one end on wood and resting on a sled at the other, with pike staffs which had a double point, one bent for hauling, the other straight for pushing. Each sled held 14 or 15 cakes which weighed about 2 tons and were drawn by one horse over the ice to the shore, where they & these being sledded to the shore Walden ice and stack it up on the shore in the open air. When it was covered with snow a dozen men were incessantly engaged scraping this off over an area of several acres with various kinds of scrapers drawn by horses. Two followed with a horse & a slight cutter, one carefully leading the horse while the other guided the cutter within a few inches of a rope drawn straight across the ice for 10 or a dozen rods. Such a groove was made on two sides of a parallelogram. Then with various kinds of gage cutters, that is cutters connected by a frame with parallel smooth or toothless plates at a proper distance on one or both sides, running in the last made groove the whole area was finally grooved in squares 22 inches on a side, yet not so weakened but that horses could work on it. I was told that the best ice cutters or plows cost over a hundred dollars, and cut 4 inches at a bout but it was hard work for a horse. Other men were employed with whipsaws cutting this area into long strips the width of a cake; half a dozen poling the strips along a narrow canal to the loading place—near which one stood with a spade-like chisel to cut off the "cakes," which consisted of two squares & therefore measured 22 by 44 inches. These cakes were to be finally divided by the shallow groove at the loading aboard ship, so that one man might handle them. At the end of the canal were a dozen or 15 men half on each side incessantly hauling the cakes up a narrow iron framework or railway, sunk at one end on wood and resting on a sled at the other, with pike staffs which had a double point, one bent for hauling, the other straight for pushing. Each sled held 14 or 15 cakes which weighed about 2 tons and were drawn by one horse over the ice to the shore, where they & these being sledded to the shore Walden ice and stack it up on the shore in the open air. When it was covered with snow a dozen men were incessantly engaged scraping this off over an area of several acres with various kinds of scrapers drawn by horses. Two followed with a horse & a slight cutter, one carefully leading the horse while the other guided the cutter within a few inches of a rope drawn straight across the ice for 10 or a dozen rods. Such a groove was made on two sides of a parallelogram. Then with various kinds of gage cutters, that is cutters connected by a frame with parallel smooth or toothless plates at a proper distance on one or both sides, running in the last made groove the whole area was finally grooved in squares 22 inches on a side, yet not so weakened but that horses could work on it. I was told that the best ice cutters or plows cost over a hundred dollars, and cut 4 inches at a bout but it was hard work for a horse. Other men were employed with whipsaws cutting this area into long strips the width of a cake; half a dozen poling the strips along a narrow canal to the loading place—near which one stood with a spade-like chisel to cut off the "cakes," which consisted of two squares & therefore measured 22 by 44 inches. These cakes were to be finally divided by the shallow groove at the loading aboard ship, so that one man might handle them. At the end of the canal were a dozen or 15 men half on each side incessantly hauling the cakes up a narrow iron framework or railway, sunk at one end on wood and resting on a sled at the other, with pike staffs which had a double point, one bent for hauling, the other straight for pushing. Each sled held 14 or 15 cakes which weighed about 2 tons and were drawn by one horse over the ice to the shore, where they & these being sledded to the shore Walden the ice. They stack divided it into cakes by methods too well known to require description, & these being sledded to the shore the ice. They divided it into cakes by methods too well known to require description, and these, being sledded to the shore, the ice. They divided it into cakes by methods too well known to require description, and these, being sledded to the shore, were rapidly hauled off on to an ice platform, and raised by grappling irons and block and tackle, worked by horses, on to the a the a the a the a the a a a a stack, as surely as so many barrels of flour, and there placed evenly side by side, & or upon one another & or upon one another & or upon one another & or upon one another & or upon one another & or upon one another & row upon row and row upon row, and row upon row, as if they formed the solid base of an obelisk designed to pierce the clouds. There were 60 men employed at the stack, about 30 above & 30 below—about 20 in loading & sledding, & 10 in scraping, grooving, sawing & poling clouds. There were 60 men employed at the stack, about 30 above & 30 below—about 20 in loading & sledding, & 10 in scraping, grooving, sawing & poling clouds. There were 60 men employed at the stack, about 30 above & 30 below—about 20 in loading & sledding, & 10 in scraping, grooving, sawing & poling clouds. There were 60 men employed at the stack, about 30 above & 30 below—about 20 in loading & sledding, & 10 in scraping, grooving, sawing & poling clouds. There were 60 men employed at the stack, about 30 above & 30 below—about 20 in loading & sledding, & 10 in scraping, grooving, sawing & poling clouds. clouds. clouds. They told me that in a good day they could get out a thousand tons, which was the yield of about one acre. 18b
The Pond in Winter 18b written: E rewritten: F
F: The Pond in Winter 18b is followed by Economy 106b.

(Ronald Clapper)
Deep ruts and "cradle-holes" were worn in the ice, by the passage of the sleds over the same track, as on terra firma as on terra firma by the passage of the sleds over the same track, & as on , by the passage of the sleds over the same track, and as on , by the passage of the sleds over the same track, and the horses invariably ate their oats out of cakes of ice hollowed out like buckets. 18c
The Pond in Winter 18c written: E
E: Conclusion 8b follows The Pond in Winter 18c.

(Ronald Clapper)
They stacked up the cakes thus in the open air thus in the open air thus in the open air thus in the open air in a pile thirty-five feet high on one side and six or seven rods square, putting meadow hay hay hay hay between the outside layers to keep out exclude exclude exclude the air; for when the wind, , finds a passage through it though never so cold finds a passage through though never so cold, finds a passage through, though never so cold, finds a passage through, though never so cold, finds a passage through, it will wear large cavities, leaving slight supports or studs only here and there, and finally topple it down. At first it looked like a vast blue fort or Valhalla; but when they began to tuck the coarse meadow hay into the crevices, which soon & this became covered with icicles & rime & icicles and this became covered with rime and icicles, and this became covered with rime and icicles, and this became covered with rime and icicles, it looked like a venerable moss-grown and hoary ruin, built of azure-tinted marble, the abode of Winter, that old man we see in the almanac,— his shanty, as if he had a design to estivate with us as if he had a design to estivate with us as if he had a design to estivate with us as if he had a design to estivate with us . They calculated that not twenty-five per cent. of this would reach its destination, and that two or three per cent would be wasted in the l cars, but they use all the pieces in packing aboard ship. However, the a still cars. However, a still cars. However, a still cars. However, a still greater part of this heap had a different destiny from what was intended; for, either because because because because the ice was found not to keep so well as was expected, containing more air than usual, or else the freitage charged by the RR company was too high so that for some other reason for some other reason, for some other reason, for some other reason, it never got to market. 18d
The Pond in Winter 18d written: A rewritten: E

(Ronald Clapper)
This heap which was This heap which was This heap which was This heap which was The objection that it did not keep so well moreover that the freitage charged by the RR company was too high would have been more reasonable. This heap which was thus This heap, This heap, This heap, made in the winter of ’46-7 was and estimated to contain ten thousand tons, was finally and estimated to contain ten thousand tons, was finally and estimated to contain ten thousand tons, was finally and estimated to contain ten thousand tons, was finally and estimated to contain ten thousand tons, was finally and estimated to contain ten thousand tons, was finally and estimated to contain ten thousand tons, was finally covered with hay and boards; and though it was unroofed the following July, and remained exposed to the sun, and a great part of it was carried off a part of it carried off, the rest remaining exposed to the sun, a part of it carried off, the rest remaining exposed to the sun, a part of it carried off, the rest remaining exposed to the sun, a part of it carried off, the rest remaining exposed to the sun, a part of it carried off, the rest remaining exposed to the sun, a part of it carried off, the rest remaining exposed to the sun, a part of it carried off, the rest remaining exposed to the sun, it stood over that summer and the next winter, and was not quite melted till September 1848. The ice was put to many novel uses—The horses ate their oats out of cakes of ice hollowed out like a bucket. The workmen did not touch the ice at all but managed it with spike poles. Those who peddle it in the summer use an instrument to grapple it with since fatal effects are found to follow the long continued habit of handling it Thus the pond recovered the greater part. Thus the pond recovered the greater part. Thus the pond recovered the greater part. Thus the pond recovered the greater part. Thus the pond recovered the greater part. Thus the pond recovered the greater part. Thus the pond recovered the greater part.
19a
The Pond in Winter 19a written: E rewritten: F

(Ronald Clapper)
Though the Walden water is green near at hand the ice is Though the Walden water is green the ice is Like the water the Walden ice seen near at hand has a green tint but at a distance Like the water, the Walden ice, seen near at hand, has a green tint, but at a distance Like the water, the Walden ice, seen near at hand, has a green tint, but at a distance is beautifully blue, and you can easily tell it from the white ice of the river, or the greenish ice of some other ponds or the merely greenish ice of some other ponds or the merely greenish ice of some ponds, or the merely greenish ice of some ponds, a quarter of a mile off. 19b
The Pond in Winter 19b written: E rewritten: F
E & F: The Pond in Winter 19b, which is interlined in E, follows The Pond in Winter 19c.
E: Moreover Also the Walden water, unless seen from a distance is green or the color of the earth; but frozen it is blue or the color of the heavens.
F: Also the Walden water, unless seen from a distance, is green or the color of the earth, but frozen it is blue, or the color of the heavens I have noticed that that portion of Walden which in the state of water was green will often when frozen appear from the same point of view blue. So the hollows about this pond will often in the winter be filled with a greenish water like its own, but by the next day will have frozen blue.

(Ronald Clapper)
Sometimes one of those great cakes slips from the ice-man's sled into the village street, and lies there for a week like a great emerald, an object of interest to all passers. I have noticed that a portion of Walden which in the state of water was green will often, when frozen, appear from the same point of view blue. So the hollows about this pond will, sometimes, in the winter, be filled with a greenish water somewhat like its own, but the next day will have frozen blue. Perhaps the blue color of water and ice is due to the light and air they contain, and the most transparent is the bluest. 19c
The Pond in Winter 19c written: A rewritten: E,F
A: Spring 1 follows The Pond In Winter 19c and precedes The Pond in Winter 20.

(Ronald Clapper)
Ice is a curious a curious a curious a curious a curious a curious an interesting an interesting an interesting subject for our contemplation contemplation. contemplation. contemplation. contemplation. contemplation. contemplation. contemplation. They have some in the houses at Fresh Pond in Cambridge They told me that they had some in the ice-houses at Fresh Pond They told me that they had some in the ice-houses at Fresh Pond They told me that they had some in the ice-houses at Fresh Pond They told me that they had some in the ice-houses at Fresh Pond They told me that they had some in the ice-houses at Fresh Pond They told me that they had some in the ice-houses at Fresh Pond They told me that they had some in the ice-houses at Fresh Pond five years old and which was as good as ever which was as good as ever. which was as good as ever. Why is it that a bucket of water soon becomes putrified putrified putrified putrified putrified putrified putrid, putrid, but frozen it remains it remains it remains it remains it remains remains remains remains sweet forever? One suggests that this is One suggests that this is One suggests that this is One suggests that this is Is this Is this It is commonly said that this is It is commonly said that this is It is commonly said that this is the difference between the affections and the intellect.
20
The Pond in Winter 20 written: A rewritten: E, F
E & F: A fair copy was made of only “Thus for sixteen days … its evaporations in solitude, and no”.

(Ronald Clapper)
Thus from my window For sixteen days I saw from my window Thus for sixteen days I saw from my window Thus for sixteen days I saw from my window Thus for sixteen days I saw from my window Thus for sixteen days I saw from my window Thus for sixteen days I saw from my window Thus for sixteen days I saw from my window Thus for sixteen days I saw from my window a hundred men at work like busy husbandmen, with teams and horses and apparently all the implements of farming, such a picture as we see on the first page of the almanac; and when as often as I looked out I thought was reminded as often as I looked out I was reminded as often as I looked out I was reminded as often as I looked out I was reminded as often as I looked out I was reminded as often as I looked out I was reminded as often as I looked out I was reminded as often as I looked out I was reminded of the fable of the lark and the reapers, or the parable of the sower, and such like things such like things such like things such like things such like things the like the like; the like; the like; and now they are all gone, and in 16 30 thirty thirty thirty thirty thirty thirty thirty days more, perchance perchance perchance perchance perchance perchance probably, probably, I shall look from the same window on the pure sky-blue sea-green sea-green sea-green sea-green sea-green sea-green sea-green Walden water there, reflecting the clouds and the trees, and sending up its evaporations in solitude, and no traces will appear that a man has ever stood there. Or I shall hear a solitary loon laugh as he dives and plumes himself there.—Perchance Or I shall see perchance a solitary lonely fisher in his boat—like a floating leaf—pursuing the contemplative man’s recreation, and beholding his form reflected in the waves there where lately a hundred men securely labored —or I shall hear a solitary loon laugh as he dives and plumes himself there. Perhaps I shall hear a solitary loon laugh as he dives and plumes himself, or shall see a lonely fisher in his boat, like a floating leaf, beholding his form reflected in the waves, where lately a hundred men securely labored. Perhaps I shall hear a solitary loon laugh as he dives and plumes himself, or shall see a lonely fisher in his boat, like a floating leaf, beholding his form reflected in the waves, where lately a hundred men securely labored. Perhaps I shall hear a solitary loon laugh as he dives and plumes himself, or shall see a lonely fisher in his boat, like a floating leaf, beholding his form reflected in the waves, where lately a hundred men securely labored. Perhaps I shall hear a solitary loon laugh as he dives and plumes himself, or shall see a lonely fisher in his boat, like a floating leaf, beholding his form reflected in the waves, where lately a hundred men securely labored. Perhaps I shall hear a solitary loon laugh as he dives and plumes himself, or shall see a lonely fisher in his boat, like a floating leaf, beholding his form reflected in the waves, where lately a hundred men securely labored. Perhaps I shall hear a solitary loon laugh as he dives and plumes himself, or shall see a lonely fisher in his boat, like a floating leaf, beholding his form reflected in the waves, where lately a hundred men securely labored. Perhaps I shall hear a solitary loon laugh as he dives and plumes himself, or shall see a lonely fisher in his boat, like a floating leaf, beholding his form reflected in the waves, where lately a hundred men securely labored.
21
The Pond in Winter 21 written: A

(Ronald Clapper)
Thus it appears that the sweltering inhabitants of Charleston and New Orleans & Havanna Jamaica New Orleans, New Orleans, New Orleans, New Orleans, New Orleans, New Orleans, New Orleans, of Madras and Bombay and Calcutta, drink at my well. In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous and cosmogonal philosophy of the Bhagvat Geeta, since whose composition years of the gods have elapsed, and in comparison with which this our our our our our our our our modern world and its literature seem puny and trivial; and I doubt if these things are that philosophy is not to be referred to another a previous state of existence than this of ours —so remote are that religion & is its sublimity from our age & that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our conceptions. I lay down the book and go to my well for water, and lo! there I meet the servant of the Brahmin, priest of Brahma and Vishnu and Indra, who still sit sits sits sits sits sits sits sits sits in his temple on the Ganges reading the Vedas, the descendant of the religious devotee who once dwelt at the roots of trees or dwells at the root of a tree or dwells at the root of a tree or dwells at the root of a tree or dwells at the root of a tree or dwells at the root of a tree or dwells at the root of a tree or dwells at the root of a tree or dwells at the root of a tree with his crust and water jug. I meet his servant come to draw water for his master, and our buckets as it were as it were as it were as it were as it were as it were as it were as it were grate together in the same well. The pure Walden water is mingled with the sacred water of the Ganges. With favoring winds it is wafted past the site of the fabulous islands of Atlantis and the islands of the Hesperides. It Hesperides, Hesperides, Hesperides, Hesperides, Hesperides, Hesperides, Hesperides, makes the periplus of Hanno, and, floating by Ternate and Tidore and the mouth of the Persian Gulf, melts in the tropic gales of the Indian seas, and is landed in ports of which Alexander heard only only heard only heard only heard only heard only heard only heard only heard the names.
XVersion
The Pond in Winter
1
The Pond in Winter 1 written: F rewritten: F
No chapter title appears in the manuscript apart from the table of contents.
F: A fair copy was made of only “but day comes to reveal … even into the plains of the ether”.

(Ronald Clapper)
I have awaked in the morning Once, after a still winter night, I awoke in the morning After a still winter night I awoke After a still winter night I awoke with the impression that some question had been put to me, and which I had been endeavoring in vain to answer it which I had been endeavoring in vain to answer which I had been endeavoring in vain to answer in my sleep, as what—how—when—where? But there was dawning Nature, in whom all creatures live, looking in at my broad windows with serene and satisfied face, and no question on lips. I awoke to an answered question, to Nature and daylight. The snow lying deep on the earth dotted with young pines, and the very slope of the hill on which my house is placed, seeming seemed seemed seemed to say, Forward! Nature puts no question and answers none which we mortals ask. which we mortals ask. which we mortals ask. She has long ago taken her resolution. "O Prince, our eyes contemplate with admiration and transmit to the soul the wonderful and varied spectacle of this universe. The night veils without doubt a part of this glorious creation; but day comes to reveal to us this great work, which extends from earth even into the plains of the ether."
2a
The Pond in Winter 2a written: F rewritten: F

(Ronald Clapper)
Then to my morning work. First I take an axe and r
Revision note: F1: bucket
bucket ail
pail pail
and go in search of water, if that be not a dream. After a cold and snowy night it needed a divining rod to find it. 2b
The Pond in Winter 2b written: G
G: The Pond in Winter 2b is added on a partial leaf.

(Ronald Clapper)
Every winter the liquid and trembling surface of the pond, which was so sensitive to every breath that was breathed in it breath, and reflected every light and shadow, becomes solid to the depth of a foot or a foot and a half, that it would as to that it will that it will support the heaviest teams, and perchance the snow covers it to an equal depth, and it is not to be distinguished from any level field. Thus like the marmots in the surrounding hills, it too closes its eyelids & becomes partially dormant for 3 months and or more Like the marmots in the surrounding hills, it closes its eye-lids and becomes dormant for three months or more. 2c
The Pond in Winter 2c written: F rewritten: F
F: n the original version of the passage “I cut my way … kneeling to drink, I”, "I" and "my" were originally "you" and "your." The second-person pronouns were canceled, and the first-person pronouns were interlined in pencil.

(Ronald Clapper)
Standing on the snow-covered plain, as if in a pasture amid the hills, I cut my way first through a foot of snow, and then a foot of ice, and open a window under my feet, where, kneeling to drink, I look down into the quiet parlor of the fishes, pervaded by a softened light as through a window of ground glass, with its bright sanded floor the same as in summer; there a perennial waveless serenity reigns as in the amber twilight sky, corresponding to the cool and even temperament of the its the the inhabitants. Heaven is under our feet as well as over our heads.
3a
The Pond in Winter 3a written: A rewritten: F
A: The Pond in Winter 3a is followed by four missing leaves (#193-199), Spring 1c, The Ponds 13, and The Pond in Winter 6a.

(Ronald Clapper)
Early in the morning, while all things are crisp with frost, come men come men come men come men come men come men come men come men come with fishing reels and slender lunch—men of unquestionable faith lunch—men of unquestionable faith lunch—men of unquestionable faith lunch—men of unquestionable faith lunch—men of unquestionable faith lunch, men of unquestionable faith lunch, lunch, and let down their fine lines through the snowy field to take pickerel and perch; Who pursue their trade with as much self-respect as any mechanic or farmer does his—wisely taught by their instinct to follow other fashions and trust other authorities than their townsmen. Wild men who frequent the river meadows and solitary ponds in the horizon—connecting links between towns—who in the goings & comings stitch towns together in parts where they would be ripped and with the hunter race prevent wild animals from multiplying.—Who Who pursue their trade with as much self-respect as any mechanic or farmer does his—wisely taught by their instinct to follow other fashions and trust other authorities than their townsmen. Wild men who frequent the river meadows and solitary ponds in the horizon—connecting links between towns—who in the goings & comings stitch towns together in parts where they would be ripped and with the hunter race prevent wild animals from multiplying.—Who Who pursue their trade with as much self-respect as any mechanic or farmer does his—wisely taught by their instinct to follow other fashions and trust other authorities than their townsmen. Wild men who frequent the river meadows and solitary ponds in the horizon—connecting links between towns—who in the goings & comings stitch towns together in parts where they would be ripped and with the hunter race prevent wild animals from multiplying.—Who Who pursue their trade with as much self-respect as any mechanic or farmer does his—wisely taught by their instinct to follow other fashions and trust other authorities than their townsmen. Wild men who frequent the river meadows and solitary ponds in the horizon—connecting links between towns—who in the goings & comings stitch towns together in parts where they would be ripped and with the hunter race prevent wild animals from multiplying.—Who Who pursue their trade with as much self-respect as any mechanic or farmer does his—wisely taught by their instinct to follow other fashions and trust other authorities than their townsmen. Wild men who frequent the river meadows and solitary ponds in the horizon—connecting links between towns—who in the goings & comings stitch towns together in parts where they would be ripped and with the hunter race prevent wild animals from multiplying.—Who wisely taught by their instinct some of them to follow other fashions, and trust other authorities than their townsmen,—I do not speak of the fishermen of a day,— wild men who by their goings & comings stitch towns together in parts where else they would else be ripped, and with the hunter race prevent wild animals from multiplying. Who They wild men, who instinctively follow other fashions and trust other authorities than their townsmen, and by their goings and comings stitch towns together in parts where else they would be ripped. They wild men, who instinctively follow other fashions and trust other authorities than their townsmen, and by their goings and comings stitch towns together in parts where else they would be ripped. They sit and eat their luncheon in stout fear-naughts on the dry oak leaves on the shore of the pond shore of the pond shore of the pond shore of the pond shore of the pond shore of the pond shore, shore, as wise in natural lore as the citizen is in artificial. Their unconscious yet intimate knowledge of natural history would make a professed naturalist envious. artificial. Their unconscious yet intimate knowledge of natural history would make a professed naturalist envious. artificial. Their unconscious yet intimate knowledge of natural history would make a professed naturalist envious. artificial. Their unconscious yet intimate knowledge of natural history would make a professed naturalist envious. artificial. Their unconscious yet intimate knowledge of natural history would make a professed naturalist envious. artificial. Their unconscious yet intimate knowledge of natural history would make a professed naturalist envious. artificial. artificial. 3b
The Pond in Winter 3b written: F

(Ronald Clapper)
They never consulted with books, and know and can tell much less than they have done. The things which these men they they they practise are said not yet to be known. Here is one fishing for pickerel with grown perch for bait. You look into his pail with wonder as into a summer pond, as if he kept summer locked up at home, or knew where she had retreated. How, pray, did he get these in mid-winter? O, he got worms out of rotten logs since the ground froze, and so he caught them. His life itself passes deeper in Nature than the studies of the naturalist penetrate; himself a subject for the naturalist. The latter raises the moss and bark gently with his knife in search of insects; the former lays open logs to their core with his axe, and moss and bark fly far and wide. He gets his living by barking trees. Such a man has a some some some right to fish, and I love to see Nature carried out in him. The pickerel perch perch perch swallows the grub-worm, the pickerel swallows the perch, and the fisherman swallows the pickerel; and so all the chinks and crannies chinks chinks in the scale of being are filled.
4
The Pond in Winter 4 written: F rewritten: F, F, G
F: The Pond in Winter 4 follows The Pond in Winter 5. A fair copy of The Pond in Winter 4 was made in its present order.
F & G: A fair copy was made of only “primitive mode which some ruder fisherman … half way round the pond”.

(Ronald Clapper)
r
Revision note: F1: Sometimes in my a stroll round the pond I was am amused to observe the very
Sometimes in a stroll Frequently when in such weather I strolled round the pond I am was amused to observe the very
When I strolled around the pond in misty weather I was sometimes amused by the When I strolled around the pond in misty weather I was sometimes amused by the
primitive mode which some yet some some ruder fisherman r
Revision note: F1: had has
has had
had had
adopted. r
Revision note: F1: Over his holes cut 4 or 5 rods apart & an equal distance apart half way round the pond from the shore he places an alder branch
F2: : Over his the narrow holes, cut in the ice four or five rods apart, and an equal distance from the shore, he places would have placed perhaps an alder branch
Over the narrow holes in the ice, four or five rods apart, and an equal distance from the shore he would perhaps have placed an alder branch
He would perhaps have placed an alder branch Over the narrow holes in the ice, which are which were four or 5 rods apart, and an equal distance from the shore, he would perhaps have placed an alder branch He would perhaps have placed alder branches over the narrow holes in the ice, which were four or five rods apart and an equal distance from the shore,
and having passed fastened fastened fastened the end of the line to a r
Revision note: F1: stick about two feet long
F2: stick about two feet long
stick two feet long
stick two feet long stick
to prevent its being pulled through, r
Revision note: F1: he passes
he passes have passed
have passed have passed
the slack line over a twig of the alder, a foot or more above the ice, and r
Revision note: F1: ties
ties tied
tied tied
a dry oak leaf to it, which, being pulled down, r
Revision note: F1: will
will would
would would
show when he r
Revision note: F1: has
has had
had had
a bite. These r
Revision note: F1: alder twigs sometimes dot the surface
F2: alder twigs sometimes dot the surface would loom through the mist at regular intervals as I walked
alder twigs loomed through the mist at regular intervals as I walked
alder twigs alders loomed through the mist at regular intervals as 1 you walked alders loomed through the mist at regular intervals as you walked
half way round the pond.
5
The Pond in Winter 5 written: F

(Ronald Clapper)
Ah, the pickerel of Walden! when I see them lying on the ice, or in the well which the fisherman cuts in the ice, making a little hole to admit the water golden and emerald water, water, I am always surprised by their rare beauty, as if they were fabulous fishes—fresh water dolphins dauphins eldest sons of Walden fishes, fishes, they are so foreign to the streets, even to the woods, foreign as Arabia to our Concord life. They possess a quite quite dazzling and transcendent beauty which separates them far by a wide interval by a wide interval by a wide interval from the cadaverous cod and haddock at least two days old haddock haddock whose fame is trumpeted in our streets. handsome artlovers & gems —they They They are not green like the pines, nor gray like the stones, nor blue like the sky the sky; the sky; but they have, to my eye eyes, eyes, if possible, yet rarer colors, like flowers and flowers and flowers and precious stones, as if they were the pearls, of this great shell—some solid opied & animalized the animalized the animalized or crystals of the Walden water. They, of course, are composed of Walden wholly Walden all over & all through Walden all over and all through; Walden all over and all through; are themselves small themselves small themselves small Waldens in the animal kingdom, Waldenses perhaps dolphins—dauphins eldest sons of Walden, for whose behalf this whole world is but a dauphin edition to study Waldenses. Waldenses. It is surprising that these fishes fish they they are caught here,—that in this deep and capacious spring, far beneath the rattling teams and chaises and tinkling sleighs that travel the Walden road, this great gold and emerald fish swims. I never chanced to see its kind in any market; it would be the cynosure of all eyes there. Easily, Easily, Easily, with a few convulsive quirks, they give up their diluted watery watery watery ghosts, like a mortal translated before his time to the subtile thin thin thin air of heaven.
6a
The Pond in Winter 6a written: A rewritten: F

(Ronald Clapper)
As I was desirous of recovering to recover to recover to recover to recover to recover to recover to recover the long lost bottom of Walden Pond, Before the ice broke up, I surveyed it carefully, before the ice broke up I surveyed it carefully, before the ice broke up, I surveyed it carefully, before the ice broke up, I surveyed it carefully, before the ice broke up, I surveyed it carefully, before the ice broke up, I surveyed it carefully, before the ice broke up, I surveyed it carefully, before the ice broke up, I surveyed it carefully, before the ice broke up, last winter early in 1846 early in ’46, early in ’46, early in ’46, early in ’46, early in ’46, early in ’46, early in ’46, with compass and chain and sounding line, and found it to contain a little over 51½ acres, and to be 102 feet deep in the middle line. line. line. line. line. line. line. 6b
The Pond in Winter 6b written: F
F: The Pond in Winter 6b is apparently a fair copy of material on a missing leaf; “-ably tight bottom at a not unreasonable, though” was added in pencil at the bottom of the leaf.

(Ronald Clapper)
There have been many stories told about the bottom, or rather no bottom, of this pond, which certainly had no foundation for themselves. It is remarkable how long men will believe in the bottomlessness of a pond without taking the trouble to sound it. So is it with many imposing theories in whose dark waters concealing the muddy bottom, we see our own faces reflected—whose shallowness could easily be proved with the sounding line of reason it. it. I have visited two such Bottomless Ponds in one walk in Sudbury—Not to speak of the theories which I heard advanced this neighborhood this neighborhood. this neighborhood. Many have believed that Walden reached quite through to the other side of the globe. Some who have lain flat on the ice for a long time, looking down through the illusive medium, perchance with watery eyes into the bargain, and and and driven to hasty conclusions by the fear of catching cold in their breasts, have seen vast holes "into which a load of hay might be driven," if there were anybody to drive it, it, it, the undoubted source of the Styx and entrance to the Infernal Regions from these parts. Most men do not see much more in a pond than a certain "natural" who lived lives in the skirts of the village, who accosted one of my visitors with—"You have been down to the pond. It looked pooty watery didn’t it?" parts. parts. Others have gone down from the village with a "fifty-six" and a wagon load of inch rope, but yet have failed to find any bottom; for while the "fifty-six" was resting by the way, they were paying out the rope in the vain attempt to fathom their truly measureless measurable capacity of marvellousness. But immeasurable capacity for marvellousness. But immeasurable capacity for marvellousness. But I can assure my readers that Walden has a reasonably tight bottom at a not unreasonable, though at an at an 6c
The Pond in Winter 6c written: E

(Ronald Clapper)
unusual, depth, notwithstanding a little bilge water in the hold, and probably a good deal of that has spattered in, or run in over the edge depth. depth. depth. I fathomed it easily with a cod-line and a stone weighing about about about about a pound and a half, and could tell exactly accurately accurately accurately when the stone left the bottom, by having to pull so much harder before the water got underneath to assist help help help help me. The greatest depth was exactly one hundred and two feet; to which may be added the five feet which it has risen since, making one hundred and seven. This is a remarkable depth for so small an area; yet not an inch of it can be spared by the imagination. What if all ponds were shallow? Would it not react on the minds of men? I am thankful that this pond was made deep and pure for a symbol. While men believe in the infinite some ponds will be thought to be to be to be bottomless.
7a
The Pond in Winter 7a written: A rewritten: E

(Ronald Clapper)
A factory owner, hearing what depth I had found, thought that it could not be true, for, as he was acquainted as he was acquainted as he was acquainted as he was acquainted as he was acquainted judging from his acquaintance judging from his acquaintance judging from his acquaintance with dams, sand would not lie at so steep an angle. But the deepest ponds are not so deep in proportion to their length & breadth as men area as most area as most area as most area as most area as most area as most area as most suppose, and, if drained off drained off drained off drained off drained off drained, drained, drained, would not leave very remarkable valleys. They are not shaped like a cup. This like cups between the hills; for this one, like cups between the hills; for this one, like cups between the hills; for this one, like cups between the hills; for this one, like cups between the hills; for this one, like cups between the hills; for this one, like cups between the hills; for this one, which is so remarkably remarkably remarkably remarkably remarkably unusually unusually unusually unusually deep for its area, appears in a profile section of its bottom which I made profile section of its bottom which I made profile section of its bottom which I made profile section of its bottom which I made vertical section through its center, showing a profile of the bottom & surface, vertical section through its centre vertical section through its centre vertical section through its centre not deeper than a shallow plate. 7b
The Pond in Winter 7b written: D rewritten: F
F: A fair copy was made of only “–serves, "If we could have seen it … compared with its breadth”.

(Ronald Clapper)
Most ponds, being emptied emptied, emptied, emptied, emptied, would leave a meadow no more hollow than we frequently see. William William William William Gilpin, who is so admirable a describer of in all that relates to in all that relates to in all that relates to in all that relates to in all that relates to landscapes, and usually so correct, standing at the head of Loch Fyne, in Scotland, which he describes as "a bay of salt water, sixty or seventy fathoms deep, four miles in breadth," and about fifty miles long, surrounded by mountains, observes, "If we could have seen it immediately after the diluvian crash, or whatever convulsion of Nature occasioned it, before the waters gushed in, what a horrid chasm must it have appeared!
 
So high as heaved the tumid hills, so low
 
Down sunk a hollow bottom, broad, and deep,
 
Capacious bed of waters—."
But if, using the shortest diameter of Loch Fyne, using the shortest diameter of Loch Fyne, using the shortest diameter of Loch Fyne, using the shortest diameter of Loch Fyne, using the shortest diameter of Loch Fyne, we apply these proportions to Walden, which, as we have seen, appears already in a transverse vertical vertical vertical vertical vertical section only like a shallow plate, it will appear four times as shallow. So much for the horrors of the chasm of Loch Fyne when emptied. No doubt many a smiling valley with its extended stretching stretching stretching stretching stretching cornfields occupies exactly such a "horrid chasm," from which the waters have receded, though it requires the insight and the far sight and the far sight and the far sight and the far sight and the far sight of the geologist to convince the unsuspecting inhabitants of the fact. I presume that I have seen many a village situated in the midst of a plain levelled by water where the fact. I presume that I have seen many a village situated in the midst of a plain levelled by water where this fact. I presume that I have seen there is many a village situated in the midst of a plain levelled by water where Often this fact. Often this fact. Often an inquisitive eye might still might still might still may may may detect the shores of a primitive lake in the low horizon hills, and no subsequent elevation of the plain was was was on which he stands have been has been has been necessary to conceal their history ancient use history history. history. history. history. But they who work on the highway know that it is easiest But it is easiest as they who work on the highways know But it is easiest, as they who work on the highways know, But it is easiest, as they who work on the highways know, But it is easiest, as they who work on the highways know, But it is easiest, as they who work on the highways know, to find the hollows by the puddles after a shower. The fact truth fact truth truth amount of it amount of it amount of it is, the imagination, give it the least license, dives deeper and soars higher than Nature goes. So, probably, the depth of the ocean will be found to be very inconsiderable compared with its breadth. So, probably, the depth of the ocean will be found to be very inconsiderable in comparison compared with its breadth or the diameter of the globe So, probably, the depth of the ocean will be found to be very inconsiderable compared with its breadth. So, probably, the depth of the ocean will be found to be very inconsiderable compared with its breadth.
8
The Pond in Winter 8 written: A rewritten: E, F
A: The Pond in Winter 8 ends at “… serving the opposite shore, Cape”. Three missing leaves (#203-207) follow.

(Ronald Clapper)
As I sounded through the ice I could determine the shape of the bottom with greater accuracy than is possible in surveying surveying surveying surveying surveying surveying surveying harbors which do not freeze over, and I was astonished astonished astonished astonished astonished surprised surprised surprised surprised at its general regularity. In the middle deepest part it was more level than middle deepest part it was more level than middle deepest part it was more level than middle deepest part it was more level than deepest part it is more level than deepest part it is there are several acres more level than almost deepest part there are several acres more level than almost deepest part there are several acres more level than almost any field which is exposed to the sun and wind and the wind and wind and wind and wind and wind and wind and wind and plough. In one instance, on a line arbitrarily chosen, it it it it it it the depth the depth did not vary more than one foot in thirty rods; and generally, near the middle, I could calculate the variation for each one hundred feet in any direction beforehand within a few a few a few a few a few three or four three or four three or four inches. Some are accustomed to speak of deep and dangerous holes in running streams and ponds—but these are contrary to the law of nature, the tendency of water to level all inequalities unless there are rocks in the way. Indeed in running streams and ponds—but these are contrary to the law of nature, the tendency of water to level all inequalities unless there are rocks in the way. Indeed in running streams and ponds—but these are contrary to the law of nature, the tendency of water to level all inequalities unless there are rocks in the way. Indeed in running streams and ponds—but these are contrary to the law of nature, the tendency of water to level all inequalities unless there are rocks in the way. Indeed in running streams even in quiet sandy ponds like this, but these would generally speaking be contrary to the laws of nature, the effect of water under those circumstances being to level all inequalities. Indeed even in quiet sandy ponds like this, but these would, generally speaking, be contrary to the laws of nature, the effect of water under these circumstances being is to level all inequalities. Indeed even in quiet sandy ponds like this, but the effect of water under these circumstances is to level all inequalities. even in quiet sandy ponds like this, but the effect of water under these circumstances is to level all inequalities. The regularity of the bottom and its conformity to the shores and the range of the neighboring hills was was was was was was were were so perfect that a distant promontory betrayed itself by in in in in in in in the soundings even in the middle even in the middle even in the middle even in the middle even in the middle quite across the pond quite across the pond, quite across the pond, quite across the pond, and its direction was could be could be could be could be could be could be could be determined by observing the opposite shore. Cape becomes bar, and plain shoal, and valley and gorge deep water and channel.
9
The Pond in Winter 9 written: E rewritten: F

(Ronald Clapper)
When I had mapped the pond by the scale of ten rods to an inch, and put down the soundings, more than a hundred in all, I observed this singular coincidence pointing to a general law I observed this singular remarkable coincidence pointing to a general law I observed this remarkable coincidence. I observed this remarkable coincidence. Having noticed that the number indicating the greatest depth was near apparently in apparently in apparently in apparently in the centre of the map, I laid a ruler rule rule rule rule on the map lengthwise, and then breadthwise, and found, to my surprise, that the line of greatest length intersected the line of greatest breadth at the point of greatest depth, with mathematical accuracy for aught I could see notwithstanding that the middle was so nearly level & though the outline of the pond quite irregular far from regular notwithstanding that the middle was is so nearly level, and though the outline of the pond far from regular notwithstanding that the middle is so nearly level, the outline of the pond far from regular, notwithstanding that the middle is so nearly level, the outline of the pond far from regular, and the extreme length and breadth were got by measuring into the coves; and I said to myself, Who knows but this hint would conduct to the deepest part of the ocean as well as of a pond or pond or pond or puddle? This too should be the law for mountains, allowing, perhaps, for the greater prevalence of disturbing forces, for we may regard a pond as in many respects a hill reversed, and This too should be the law for mountains, allowing, perhaps, for the greater prevalence of disturbing forces, for we may so regard a pond as, in many respects a hill reversed, & Is not this the rule also for the height of mountains also, regarded as the opposite of valleys? Is not this the rule also for the height of mountains, regarded as the opposite of valleys? Is not this the rule also for the height of mountains, regarded as the opposite of valleys? We know that a hill is not highest at its narrowest point art part. part. part.
10a
The Pond in Winter 10a written: E rewritten: F, F

(Ronald Clapper)
Of five coves, three, or all which had been sounded, were observed to have a bar quite across their mouths and deeper water within, so that the bay not only tended to be an expansion of water within the land superficially but also a basin horizontally but also vertically & to form a basin or independent pond r
Revision note: F1: not only tended to be an expansion of water within the land horizontally, but also vertically & to form a basin or independent pond
not only tended to be an expansion of water within the land not only horizontally, but also vertically, & to form a basin or independent pond
tended to be an expansion of water within the land not only horizontally but vertically, and to form a basin or independent pond, tended to be an expansion of water within the land not only horizontally but vertically, and to form a basin or independent pond,
the direction of the two capes showing the course of the bar. This rule too is universal. I believe that bar. This rule too is universal. I believe that bar. bar. Every harbor 10b
The Pond in Winter 10b written: F rewritten: F

(Ronald Clapper)
on the seacoast also on the sea-coast, also, on the sea-coast, also, has its bar at its entrance. In proportion as the mouth of the cove was wider compared with its length, the water over the bar was deeper compared with that in the basin. Given, then, the length and breadth of the cove, and the r
Revision note: F1: height and character and height
height and character
character character
of the surrounding shore, and r
Revision note: F1: we have I have found that I had
I found that I had you have
you have you have
almost elements enough to make out a formula for all cases.
11a
The Pond in Winter 11a written: F rewritten: F

(Ronald Clapper)
r
Revision note: F1: Wishing
Wishing In order
In order In order
to see how nearly I could guess, with this experience, at the deepest point in a 11b
The Pond in Winter 11b written: E rewritten: F, F

(Ronald Clapper)
pond, by observing the outlines of its surface and the character of its shores alone, I made a plan of White Pond, which contains about forty r
Revision note: F1: forty
forty forty-one
forty-one forty-one
acres, and, like this, has no island in it, nor any visible inlet or outlet; and as the line of greatest breadth fell very near the line of least breadth, I marked a point still further where two opposite capes approached each other & 2 opposite bays receded I ventured to mark a point a short distance where two opposite capes approached each other and two opposite bays receded, I ventured to mark a point a short distance where two opposite capes approached each other and two opposite bays receded, I ventured to mark a point a short distance where two opposite capes approached each other and two opposite bays receded, I ventured to mark a point a short distance from the latter r
Revision note: F1:
line,
line, line,
but still on the line of greatest length, as the deepest. On sounding the deepest point r
Revision note: F1: The deepest point
The deepest point art
The deepest part The deepest part
was found to be within one hundred feet of this the one indicated yet proves that I had made the right kind of correction this but still farther in the direction which I had chosen and there the depth was only one foot greater deeper than the former, namely 60 feet. Even from the deepest parts of Walden I drew up on my sounding stone a bright green weed which was very agreeable to behold in midwinter r
Revision note: F1: this, but still further in the direction which I had chosen, and it was was only one foot deeper than the former, namely 60 feet
this, still farther in the direction to which I had chosen inclined, & was only one foot deeper, namely, 60 feet
this, still farther in the direction to which I had inclined, and was only one foot deeper, namely, sixty feet. this, still farther in the direction to which I had inclined, and was only one foot deeper, namely, sixty feet.
r
Revision note: F1:
Of course, a stream running through, or an island in the pond, would make the problem much more complicated.
Of course, a stream running through, or an island in the pond, would make the problem much more complicated. Of course, a stream running through, or an island in the pond, would make the problem much more complicated.
12
The Pond in Winter 12 written: F rewritten: F, F

(Ronald Clapper)
Of course if If If we knew all the laws of Nature, we should need only one fact, or the description of one actual phenomenon, to infer all the particular results at that point. r
Revision note: F1: As it is we know only a few laws, though important ones
F2: As it is we know only a few laws, though important ones
As it is Now we know only a few laws, though important ones,
Now we know only a few laws, Now we know only a few laws,
and our result is vitiated, not, of course, of course, by any confusion or irregularity in Nature, but by our ignorance of essential elements in the calculation. r
Revision note: F1: We are wont to confine our notions of law and harmony to those instances only which
F2: We are wont to confine our notions of law and harmony to those instances only which
We are wont to confine our notions of law and harmony are commonly confined to those instances only which
Our notions of law and harmony are commonly confined to those instances which Our notions of law and harmony are commonly confined to those instances which
we detect; but the harmony which results from a r
Revision note: F1: still
F2: still
still far
far far
greater number of seemingly conflicting, but really r
Revision note: F1: harmonious
F2: harmonious
harmonious concurring
concurring, concurring,
laws, which we have not detected, is still more wonderful. The particular laws are as our points of view, as, to the traveller, a mountain outline varies with every step, and it has an infinite number of profiles, though absolutely but one form. Even r
Revision note: F1: though cleft in twain or bored through, it cannot be
F2: though cleft in twain or bored through, it cannot be
though when cleft in twain or bored through, it cannot be is not
when cleft or bored through it is not when cleft or bored through it is not
comprehended in its entireness.
13a
The Pond in Winter 13a written: E rewritten: F, G

(Ronald Clapper)
But as there is no exclusively physical nor exclusively moral law— so this is as true in ethics as in physics—that is it is the rule though not the exception. It not only guides Such a rule would not only guide us to toward the heart in man & sun in the system & the heart in man But what I have observed of the pond is no less true in morals. Such a rule would of the two diameters not only guide guides us toward the sun in the system, & toward the heart in man What I have observed of the pond is no less true in morals ethics. Such a rule of the two diameters not only guides us toward the sun in the system and the heart in man What I have observed of the pond is no less true in ethics. It is the law of average. Such a rule of the two diameters not only guides us toward the sun in the system and the heart in man, but draw lines through the length and breadth of the aggregate of a man’s particular daily behaviors and waves of life into his coves and inlets, and where they intersect will be the height or depth of his character. 13b
The Pond in Winter 13b written: F rewritten: G
F: The Pond in Winter 13b follows The Pond in Winter 13d.

(Ronald Clapper)
and perhaps we only need and Perhaps we only need Perhaps we need only to know how a man’s shores his shores his shores trend and his adjacent country or circumstances, to infer thus infer thus infer his depth and concealed bottom. All this experience our daily intercourse supplies, and our instinct is continually applying the rule bottom. This experience our daily intercourse supplies, and our instinct is continually applying the rule bottom. 13c
The Pond in Winter 13c written: G
G: The Pond in Winter 13c follows The Pond in Winter 13d and precedes The Pond in Winter 13e.

(Ronald Clapper)
Are we Is he If he is surrounded by mountainous circumstances, an Achillean shore, to whose peaks we look up, whose peaks over-shadow and which are reflected in our bosoms his bosom whose peaks overshadow and are reflected in his bosom, they suggest a corresponding depth in him us him. But a low and smooth shore proves him us him shallow on that side. So In our bodies In our bodies, a bold projecting brow falls off to and indicates a corresponding depth of thought. 13d
The Pond in Winter 13d written: F rewritten: G
F: “These inclinations are not whimsical … the ancient axes of elevation” does not appear in the manuscript.
G: The Pond in Winter 13d follows The Pond in Winter 13b and precedes The Pond in Winter 13c.

(Ronald Clapper)
So too Also Also there is a bar across the entrance of our every cove, or particular inclination; each is our harbor for a season, in which we are detained and partially land-locked. These inclinations are not whimsical commonly usually commonly usually usually, but their form, and size and size size, and direction are determined by the promontories of the shore, the ancient axes of elevation. 13e
The Pond in Winter 13e written: F rewritten: G

(Ronald Clapper)
When this bar is gradually increased by storms, or tides, or by sediment deposited by currents, so that it rises to the surface or tides, or by sediment deposited by currents, so that it rises to the surface, or the same result is produced by the subsidence of the waters tides, or currents, or there is a subsidence of the waters, so that it reaches to the surface tides, or currents, or there is a subsidence of the waters, so that it reaches to the surface, that which was at first but an inclination in the shore in which a thought was harbored becomes an individual lake, cut off from the dividual ocean,—as from the entral polypus ocean, ocean, wherein the thought secures its own conditions, changes, perchance perchance perhaps perhaps, from salt to fresh, becomes a sweet sea, dead sea, or a marsh. At the advent of each individual into this life, may we not presume presume suppose suppose that such a bar has risen to the surface somewhere, and the dry land appeared somewhere, and the dry land appeared somewhere? It is true, we are such poor & timid poor poor navigators that our thoughts, for the most part, stand off and on upon a harborless coast, are conversant only with the bights of the bays of poesy, or steer for the public ports of entry, and go into the dry docks of science, where they merely refit for this world, and no natural currents concur to individualize them.
14
The Pond in Winter 14 written: E rewritten: F, G
E: “One has suggested … carried through by the current” is interlined.
F: A fair copy was made of only “As for the inlet or outlet … need soldering till they find”.
G: A fair copy was made of only “As for the inlet or outlet … "leach hole" should be found”.

(Ronald Clapper)
As for the inlet or outlet of the pond Walden Walden, Walden, Walden, I have not discovered any but rain and snow and evaporation, though I have no doubt that perhaps perhaps, perhaps, perhaps, with a thermometer and sounding line sounding line sounding a line a line, this can be done such places may be found. Where such places may be found, for where such places may be found, for where such places may be found, for where the water flows into the pond it will probably be coldest in summer and warmest in winter , and it can easily be obtained from different parts of the bottom winter. winter. winter. When the ice-men were at work here in ’46-7, the cakes sent to the shore were one day rejected by those who were stacking them up there, not being thick enough to lie side by side with the rest; and the cakes sent to the shore were one day rejected by those who were stacking them up there, not being thick enough to lie side by side with the rest; and they they they the cutters thus the cutters thus discovered that the ice over a small space was two or three inches thinner than elsewhere, which made them think that there was an inlet there. They also showed me in another place in another place in another place in another place what they thought was a "leach-hole," through which the pond leaked out under a hill into a neighboring meadow, pushing me out on a cake of ice to see it. It was a small hole or cavity at the bottom hole or cavity at the bottom hole or cavity cavity under ten feet of water; but I think that that I can warrant the pond not to need soldering till they can find can find can find find a worse leak than that. If such a leach hole should be found there one has suggested that One has suggested, that if such a "leach hole" should be found, One has suggested, that if such a "leach hole" should be found, One has suggested, that if such a "leach hole" should be found, its connection with the meadow, if any existed, might be proved by conveying some colored powder or sawdust to the bottom of the pond mouth of the hole mouth of the hole, mouth of the hole, mouth of the hole, and then putting a strainer over the spring in the meadow, which would catch some of the powder articles particles particles particles carried through by the current.
15
The Pond in Winter 15 written: E rewritten: F
E: The Pond in Winter 15 is followed by The Pond in Winter 19a.
F: A fair copy was made of only -w“hat like cutting a hole in the bottom … on the trees or hill-side”.

(Ronald Clapper)
While surveying I observed that While I was surveying, While I was surveying, While I was surveying, the ice, which was more than a foot sixteen inches sixteen inches sixteen inches thick, undulated under a slight wind like waves water. water. water. It is well known that a level cannot be used on ice. At one rod from the shore its greatest fluctuation, when observed by means of a level on land directed toward a graduated staff on the ice, was three quarters of an inch, though the ice appeared firmly attached to the shore. It was probably greater in the middle. t Nicer instruments might perhaps Who knows but if our instruments were nice enough we might Who knows but if our instruments were delicate enough we might Who knows but if our instruments were delicate enough we might Who knows but if our instruments were delicate enough we might detect an undulation in the crust of the earth? When two legs of the instrument rested were my level were my level were my level were on the shore and the third on the ice, and the sights were directed over the latter, a rise or fall of the ice of an almost almost almost almost infinitesimal amount made a difference of several feet on a tree across the pond, and this suggested how I could easily calculate the slightest conceivable motion there and what would be absolute rest to most tests pond. pond. pond. When I began to cut holes for sounding, there were three or four inches of water on the ice under a deep snow which had sunk it thus far though the ice it was 15 inches thick far; far; far; but the water began immediately to run into these holes, and continued to run for two days in deep streams, which wore away the ice on every side, and contributed essentially, if not mainly, if not mainly, if not mainly, if not mainly, to dry the surface of the pond; for, as the water ran in, it raised and floated the ice. This was a little somewhat somewhat somewhat somewhat like cutting a hole in the bottom of your ship your a ship a ship a ship to let the water out. When such holes freeze over freeze, freeze, freeze, and a rain succeeds, and finally a new freezing forms a fresh smooth surface ice ice ice ice over all, it is beautifully mottled internally by dark figures, shaped somewhat like a spider's web, what you may call ice rosettes, produced by what you may call ice rosettes, produced by what you may call ice rosettes, produced by the channels worn by the water flowing from all sides to a center. This is a very common phenomenon which one of my neighbors calls "rosettes" center. This is a very common phenomenon which one of my neighbors calls "rosettes" centre. centre. Sometimes, also, also, also, when the ice was covered with shallow puddles, I saw a double shadow of myself, one standing on the head of the other, one on the ice, the other on the bank trees or hill side trees or hill-side. trees or hill-side. trees or hill-side.
16a
The Pond in Winter 16a written: A rewritten: A, E, F

(Ronald Clapper)
Here too in winter days—while While While While While While While While yet it is cold January, and snow and ice are thick and solid, and solid, and solid, and solid, and solid, and solid, and solid, comes the prudent landlord comes the prudent landlord comes the prudent landlord comes the prudent landlord comes the prudent landlord comes the prudent landlord comes the prudent landlord comes the prudent landlord comes from the village to get ice to cool his summer drink; impressively, even pathetically wise, to foresee the thirst and heat thirst and heat thirst and heat thirst and heat thirst and heat and thirst heat and thirst heat and thirst heat and thirst of July now now now now now now now in January,— wearing a thick coat and mittens! wearing a thick coat and mittens! wearing a thick coat and mittens! wearing a thick coat and mittens! wearing a thick coat and mittens! wearing a thick coat and mittens! wearing a thick coat and mittens! when so many things are not provided for. Perchance Perchance It may be that It may be that It may be that he lays up no treasures in this world which will cool his summer drink in the next. He cuts and saws the solid pond, unroofs the house of fishes, and carts off their very element and air, held fast with with with with with with by by by chains and stakes like corded wood, r
Revision note: A1: all through
all through
r
Revision note: A1: all through
all through
r
Revision note: A1: all through
all through
r
Revision note: A1: all through
all through
r
Revision note: A1: all through
all through
all through through through
the favoring winter air, to wintry cellars, to underlie the summer there. 16b
The Pond in Winter 16b written: A rewritten: A, F
A: All but “It looks like solidified azure, as, far off” of the original version is contained on three missing leaves (#183-187) that follow.
F: A fair copy was made of only “It looks like solidi-”.

(Ronald Clapper)
It looks r
Revision note: A1: blue as amethyst or
blue as amethyst or like
like like like like like like like
solidified azure, r
Revision note: A1: afar off as
afar off as
as, far off, as, far off, as, far off, as, far off, as, far off, as, far off, as, far off,
it is drawn through the streets. They are a merry race, these ice cutters are a merry race These ice-cutters are a merry race, These ice-cutters are a merry race, These ice-cutters are a merry race, These ice-cutters are a merry race, These ice-cutters are a merry race, These ice-cutters are a merry race, These ice-cutters are a merry race, full of jest and sport, and when I went among them they were wont to invite me to saw pit-fashion with them, I standing underneath.
17a
The Pond in Winter 17a written: A

(Ronald Clapper)
This winter, as you all know, In the winter of 46 & 7 In the winter of ’46-7 In the winter of ’46-7 In the winter of ’46-7 In the winter of ’46-7 In the winter of ’46-7 In the winter of ’46-7 In the winter of ’46-7 there came a hundred men of Hyperborean extraction swoop down on to our pond one morning, with a shriek from the engine—with with with with with with with with many car-loads of ungainly-looking farming tools, sleds, ploughs, drill-barrows, turf-knives, spades, saws, rakes, and each man man man man man man man man was armed with a double-pointed pike-staff, such as is are is is is is is is is not described in the New-England Farmer or the Cultivator. At first I I I I I I I I did not know whether they had come to sow a crop of winter rye, or some other kind of grain recently introduced from Iceland. As I saw no manure, I judged that they meant to skim the land, as I had done— thinking the soil was deep and had lain fallow long enough —as I had done with my field the year before as I had done, thinking the soil was deep and had lain fallow long enough, as I had done, thinking the soil was deep and had lain fallow long enough, as I had done, thinking the soil was deep and had lain fallow long enough, as I had done, thinking the soil was deep and had lain fallow long enough, as I had done, thinking the soil was deep and had lain fallow long enough, as I had done, thinking the soil was deep and had lain fallow long enough, as I had done, thinking the soil was deep and had lain fallow long enough, They said that a gentleman farmer a Mr Tudor gentleman farmer, gentleman farmer, gentleman farmer, gentleman farmer, gentleman farmer, gentleman farmer, gentleman farmer, who was behind the scenes, wanted to double his money, which, as I understood, amounted to half a million already; but in order to cover each one of his dollars with another, he took off the only coat, and ay ay, ay, ay, ay, ay, ay, ay, the skin itself, of Walden Pond in the midst of a hard winter. They went to work at once, ploughing, harrowing, rolling, furrowing, in admirable order, as if they were bent on making this a model farm; but when I was looking sharp to see what kind of seed they dropped into the furrow, a gang of fellows by my side suddenly began to book up the virgin mould itself, with a peculiar jerk, clean down to the sand, or rather 17b
The Pond in Winter 17b written: E rewritten: F
F: A fair copy was made of only “So they came and went every day … had to be cut out”.

(Ronald Clapper)
the water,—for it was a very springy soil,—indeed all the there was, and haul it away on sleds, and then I guessed that they must be cutting peat in a bog. So they went & came & went came and went came and went came and went every day, with a peculiar shriek of the whistle to and from some part of the northern of the whistle from the locomotive from & to some part of the northern from the locomotive, from and to some point of the from the locomotive, from and to some point of the polar regions, as it seemed to me, like a flock of arctic snow-birds. But sometimes Squaw Walden had her revenge, and a hired man, walking behind his team, slipped through a crack in the ground down toward Tartarus, and he who was so brave before suddenly became but the ninth part of a man, and almost and almost almost almost gave up his animal heat, and was glad to take refuge in my house, and acknowledge acknowledged acknowledged acknowledged that there was some virtue in a stove; or sometimes the frozen soil took a piece of steel out of a ploughshare, or a plough got set in the furrow and had to be cut out again out again out. out.
18a
The Pond in Winter 18a written: A rewritten: E, F

(Ronald Clapper)
in the almanac—his shanty. They told me that in a good day they told me they could get out a thousand tons which was the yield of about one acre & contained 10000 tons finally n
Note: The Pond in Winter 18a is followed by Economy 106b. (R. Clapper)
But to speak without jesting literally But to speak without jesting literally But to speak without jesting literally But to speak without jesting literally But to speak without jesting literally But to speak literally to speak literally, to speak literally, a hundred Irishmen, with Yankee overseers, came from Cambridge every day to get out Walden ice and stack it up on the shore in the open air. When it was covered with snow a dozen men were incessantly engaged scraping this off over an area of several acres with various kinds of scrapers drawn by horses. Two followed with a horse & a slight cutter, one carefully leading the horse while the other guided the cutter within a few inches of a rope drawn straight across the ice for 10 or a dozen rods. Such a groove was made on two sides of a parallelogram. Then with various kinds of gage cutters, that is cutters connected by a frame with parallel smooth or toothless plates at a proper distance on one or both sides, running in the last made groove the whole area was finally grooved in squares 22 inches on a side, yet not so weakened but that horses could work on it. I was told that the best ice cutters or plows cost over a hundred dollars, and cut 4 inches at a bout but it was hard work for a horse. Other men were employed with whipsaws cutting this area into long strips the width of a cake; half a dozen poling the strips along a narrow canal to the loading place—near which one stood with a spade-like chisel to cut off the "cakes," which consisted of two squares & therefore measured 22 by 44 inches. These cakes were to be finally divided by the shallow groove at the loading aboard ship, so that one man might handle them. At the end of the canal were a dozen or 15 men half on each side incessantly hauling the cakes up a narrow iron framework or railway, sunk at one end on wood and resting on a sled at the other, with pike staffs which had a double point, one bent for hauling, the other straight for pushing. Each sled held 14 or 15 cakes which weighed about 2 tons and were drawn by one horse over the ice to the shore, where they & these being sledded to the shore Walden ice and stack it up on the shore in the open air. When it was covered with snow a dozen men were incessantly engaged scraping this off over an area of several acres with various kinds of scrapers drawn by horses. Two followed with a horse & a slight cutter, one carefully leading the horse while the other guided the cutter within a few inches of a rope drawn straight across the ice for 10 or a dozen rods. Such a groove was made on two sides of a parallelogram. Then with various kinds of gage cutters, that is cutters connected by a frame with parallel smooth or toothless plates at a proper distance on one or both sides, running in the last made groove the whole area was finally grooved in squares 22 inches on a side, yet not so weakened but that horses could work on it. I was told that the best ice cutters or plows cost over a hundred dollars, and cut 4 inches at a bout but it was hard work for a horse. Other men were employed with whipsaws cutting this area into long strips the width of a cake; half a dozen poling the strips along a narrow canal to the loading place—near which one stood with a spade-like chisel to cut off the "cakes," which consisted of two squares & therefore measured 22 by 44 inches. These cakes were to be finally divided by the shallow groove at the loading aboard ship, so that one man might handle them. At the end of the canal were a dozen or 15 men half on each side incessantly hauling the cakes up a narrow iron framework or railway, sunk at one end on wood and resting on a sled at the other, with pike staffs which had a double point, one bent for hauling, the other straight for pushing. Each sled held 14 or 15 cakes which weighed about 2 tons and were drawn by one horse over the ice to the shore, where they & these being sledded to the shore Walden ice and stack it up on the shore in the open air. When it was covered with snow a dozen men were incessantly engaged scraping this off over an area of several acres with various kinds of scrapers drawn by horses. Two followed with a horse & a slight cutter, one carefully leading the horse while the other guided the cutter within a few inches of a rope drawn straight across the ice for 10 or a dozen rods. Such a groove was made on two sides of a parallelogram. Then with various kinds of gage cutters, that is cutters connected by a frame with parallel smooth or toothless plates at a proper distance on one or both sides, running in the last made groove the whole area was finally grooved in squares 22 inches on a side, yet not so weakened but that horses could work on it. I was told that the best ice cutters or plows cost over a hundred dollars, and cut 4 inches at a bout but it was hard work for a horse. Other men were employed with whipsaws cutting this area into long strips the width of a cake; half a dozen poling the strips along a narrow canal to the loading place—near which one stood with a spade-like chisel to cut off the "cakes," which consisted of two squares & therefore measured 22 by 44 inches. These cakes were to be finally divided by the shallow groove at the loading aboard ship, so that one man might handle them. At the end of the canal were a dozen or 15 men half on each side incessantly hauling the cakes up a narrow iron framework or railway, sunk at one end on wood and resting on a sled at the other, with pike staffs which had a double point, one bent for hauling, the other straight for pushing. Each sled held 14 or 15 cakes which weighed about 2 tons and were drawn by one horse over the ice to the shore, where they & these being sledded to the shore Walden ice and stack it up on the shore in the open air. When it was covered with snow a dozen men were incessantly engaged scraping this off over an area of several acres with various kinds of scrapers drawn by horses. Two followed with a horse & a slight cutter, one carefully leading the horse while the other guided the cutter within a few inches of a rope drawn straight across the ice for 10 or a dozen rods. Such a groove was made on two sides of a parallelogram. Then with various kinds of gage cutters, that is cutters connected by a frame with parallel smooth or toothless plates at a proper distance on one or both sides, running in the last made groove the whole area was finally grooved in squares 22 inches on a side, yet not so weakened but that horses could work on it. I was told that the best ice cutters or plows cost over a hundred dollars, and cut 4 inches at a bout but it was hard work for a horse. Other men were employed with whipsaws cutting this area into long strips the width of a cake; half a dozen poling the strips along a narrow canal to the loading place—near which one stood with a spade-like chisel to cut off the "cakes," which consisted of two squares & therefore measured 22 by 44 inches. These cakes were to be finally divided by the shallow groove at the loading aboard ship, so that one man might handle them. At the end of the canal were a dozen or 15 men half on each side incessantly hauling the cakes up a narrow iron framework or railway, sunk at one end on wood and resting on a sled at the other, with pike staffs which had a double point, one bent for hauling, the other straight for pushing. Each sled held 14 or 15 cakes which weighed about 2 tons and were drawn by one horse over the ice to the shore, where they & these being sledded to the shore Walden ice and stack it up on the shore in the open air. When it was covered with snow a dozen men were incessantly engaged scraping this off over an area of several acres with various kinds of scrapers drawn by horses. Two followed with a horse & a slight cutter, one carefully leading the horse while the other guided the cutter within a few inches of a rope drawn straight across the ice for 10 or a dozen rods. Such a groove was made on two sides of a parallelogram. Then with various kinds of gage cutters, that is cutters connected by a frame with parallel smooth or toothless plates at a proper distance on one or both sides, running in the last made groove the whole area was finally grooved in squares 22 inches on a side, yet not so weakened but that horses could work on it. I was told that the best ice cutters or plows cost over a hundred dollars, and cut 4 inches at a bout but it was hard work for a horse. Other men were employed with whipsaws cutting this area into long strips the width of a cake; half a dozen poling the strips along a narrow canal to the loading place—near which one stood with a spade-like chisel to cut off the "cakes," which consisted of two squares & therefore measured 22 by 44 inches. These cakes were to be finally divided by the shallow groove at the loading aboard ship, so that one man might handle them. At the end of the canal were a dozen or 15 men half on each side incessantly hauling the cakes up a narrow iron framework or railway, sunk at one end on wood and resting on a sled at the other, with pike staffs which had a double point, one bent for hauling, the other straight for pushing. Each sled held 14 or 15 cakes which weighed about 2 tons and were drawn by one horse over the ice to the shore, where they & these being sledded to the shore Walden the ice. They stack divided it into cakes by methods too well known to require description, & these being sledded to the shore the ice. They divided it into cakes by methods too well known to require description, and these, being sledded to the shore, the ice. They divided it into cakes by methods too well known to require description, and these, being sledded to the shore, were rapidly hauled off on to an ice platform, and raised by grappling irons and block and tackle, worked by horses, on to the a the a the a the a the a a a a stack, as surely as so many barrels of flour, and there placed evenly side by side, & or upon one another & or upon one another & or upon one another & or upon one another & or upon one another & or upon one another & row upon row and row upon row, and row upon row, as if they formed the solid base of an obelisk designed to pierce the clouds. There were 60 men employed at the stack, about 30 above & 30 below—about 20 in loading & sledding, & 10 in scraping, grooving, sawing & poling clouds. There were 60 men employed at the stack, about 30 above & 30 below—about 20 in loading & sledding, & 10 in scraping, grooving, sawing & poling clouds. There were 60 men employed at the stack, about 30 above & 30 below—about 20 in loading & sledding, & 10 in scraping, grooving, sawing & poling clouds. There were 60 men employed at the stack, about 30 above & 30 below—about 20 in loading & sledding, & 10 in scraping, grooving, sawing & poling clouds. There were 60 men employed at the stack, about 30 above & 30 below—about 20 in loading & sledding, & 10 in scraping, grooving, sawing & poling clouds. clouds. clouds. They told me that in a good day they could get out a thousand tons, which was the yield of about one acre. 18b
The Pond in Winter 18b written: E rewritten: F
F: The Pond in Winter 18b is followed by Economy 106b.

(Ronald Clapper)
Deep ruts and "cradle-holes" were worn in the ice, by the passage of the sleds over the same track, as on terra firma as on terra firma by the passage of the sleds over the same track, & as on , by the passage of the sleds over the same track, and as on , by the passage of the sleds over the same track, and the horses invariably ate their oats out of cakes of ice hollowed out like buckets. 18c
The Pond in Winter 18c written: E
E: Conclusion 8b follows The Pond in Winter 18c.

(Ronald Clapper)
They stacked up the cakes thus in the open air thus in the open air thus in the open air thus in the open air in a pile thirty-five feet high on one side and six or seven rods square, putting meadow hay hay hay hay between the outside layers to keep out exclude exclude exclude the air; for when the wind, , finds a passage through it though never so cold finds a passage through though never so cold, finds a passage through, though never so cold, finds a passage through, though never so cold, finds a passage through, it will wear large cavities, leaving slight supports or studs only here and there, and finally topple it down. At first it looked like a vast blue fort or Valhalla; but when they began to tuck the coarse meadow hay into the crevices, which soon & this became covered with icicles & rime & icicles and this became covered with rime and icicles, and this became covered with rime and icicles, and this became covered with rime and icicles, it looked like a venerable moss-grown and hoary ruin, built of azure-tinted marble, the abode of Winter, that old man we see in the almanac,— his shanty, as if he had a design to estivate with us as if he had a design to estivate with us as if he had a design to estivate with us as if he had a design to estivate with us . They calculated that not twenty-five per cent. of this would reach its destination, and that two or three per cent would be wasted in the l cars, but they use all the pieces in packing aboard ship. However, the a still cars. However, a still cars. However, a still cars. However, a still greater part of this heap had a different destiny from what was intended; for, either because because because because the ice was found not to keep so well as was expected, containing more air than usual, or else the freitage charged by the RR company was too high so that for some other reason for some other reason, for some other reason, for some other reason, it never got to market. 18d
The Pond in Winter 18d written: A rewritten: E

(Ronald Clapper)
This heap which was This heap which was This heap which was This heap which was The objection that it did not keep so well moreover that the freitage charged by the RR company was too high would have been more reasonable. This heap which was thus This heap, This heap, This heap, made in the winter of ’46-7 was and estimated to contain ten thousand tons, was finally and estimated to contain ten thousand tons, was finally and estimated to contain ten thousand tons, was finally and estimated to contain ten thousand tons, was finally and estimated to contain ten thousand tons, was finally and estimated to contain ten thousand tons, was finally and estimated to contain ten thousand tons, was finally covered with hay and boards; and though it was unroofed the following July, and remained exposed to the sun, and a great part of it was carried off a part of it carried off, the rest remaining exposed to the sun, a part of it carried off, the rest remaining exposed to the sun, a part of it carried off, the rest remaining exposed to the sun, a part of it carried off, the rest remaining exposed to the sun, a part of it carried off, the rest remaining exposed to the sun, a part of it carried off, the rest remaining exposed to the sun, a part of it carried off, the rest remaining exposed to the sun, it stood over that summer and the next winter, and was not quite melted till September 1848. The ice was put to many novel uses—The horses ate their oats out of cakes of ice hollowed out like a bucket. The workmen did not touch the ice at all but managed it with spike poles. Those who peddle it in the summer use an instrument to grapple it with since fatal effects are found to follow the long continued habit of handling it Thus the pond recovered the greater part. Thus the pond recovered the greater part. Thus the pond recovered the greater part. Thus the pond recovered the greater part. Thus the pond recovered the greater part. Thus the pond recovered the greater part. Thus the pond recovered the greater part.
19a
The Pond in Winter 19a written: E rewritten: F

(Ronald Clapper)
Though the Walden water is green near at hand the ice is Though the Walden water is green the ice is Like the water the Walden ice seen near at hand has a green tint but at a distance Like the water, the Walden ice, seen near at hand, has a green tint, but at a distance Like the water, the Walden ice, seen near at hand, has a green tint, but at a distance is beautifully blue, and you can easily tell it from the white ice of the river, or the greenish ice of some other ponds or the merely greenish ice of some other ponds or the merely greenish ice of some ponds, or the merely greenish ice of some ponds, a quarter of a mile off. 19b
The Pond in Winter 19b written: E rewritten: F
E & F: The Pond in Winter 19b, which is interlined in E, follows The Pond in Winter 19c.
E: Moreover Also the Walden water, unless seen from a distance is green or the color of the earth; but frozen it is blue or the color of the heavens.
F: Also the Walden water, unless seen from a distance, is green or the color of the earth, but frozen it is blue, or the color of the heavens I have noticed that that portion of Walden which in the state of water was green will often when frozen appear from the same point of view blue. So the hollows about this pond will often in the winter be filled with a greenish water like its own, but by the next day will have frozen blue.

(Ronald Clapper)
Sometimes one of those great cakes slips from the ice-man's sled into the village street, and lies there for a week like a great emerald, an object of interest to all passers. I have noticed that a portion of Walden which in the state of water was green will often, when frozen, appear from the same point of view blue. So the hollows about this pond will, sometimes, in the winter, be filled with a greenish water somewhat like its own, but the next day will have frozen blue. Perhaps the blue color of water and ice is due to the light and air they contain, and the most transparent is the bluest. 19c
The Pond in Winter 19c written: A rewritten: E,F
A: Spring 1 follows The Pond In Winter 19c and precedes The Pond in Winter 20.

(Ronald Clapper)
Ice is a curious a curious a curious a curious a curious a curious an interesting an interesting an interesting subject for our contemplation contemplation. contemplation. contemplation. contemplation. contemplation. contemplation. contemplation. They have some in the houses at Fresh Pond in Cambridge They told me that they had some in the ice-houses at Fresh Pond They told me that they had some in the ice-houses at Fresh Pond They told me that they had some in the ice-houses at Fresh Pond They told me that they had some in the ice-houses at Fresh Pond They told me that they had some in the ice-houses at Fresh Pond They told me that they had some in the ice-houses at Fresh Pond They told me that they had some in the ice-houses at Fresh Pond five years old and which was as good as ever which was as good as ever. which was as good as ever. Why is it that a bucket of water soon becomes putrified putrified putrified putrified putrified putrified putrid, putrid, but frozen it remains it remains it remains it remains it remains remains remains remains sweet forever? One suggests that this is One suggests that this is One suggests that this is One suggests that this is Is this Is this It is commonly said that this is It is commonly said that this is It is commonly said that this is the difference between the affections and the intellect.
20
The Pond in Winter 20 written: A rewritten: E, F
E & F: A fair copy was made of only “Thus for sixteen days … its evaporations in solitude, and no”.

(Ronald Clapper)
Thus from my window For sixteen days I saw from my window Thus for sixteen days I saw from my window Thus for sixteen days I saw from my window Thus for sixteen days I saw from my window Thus for sixteen days I saw from my window Thus for sixteen days I saw from my window Thus for sixteen days I saw from my window Thus for sixteen days I saw from my window a hundred men at work like busy husbandmen, with teams and horses and apparently all the implements of farming, such a picture as we see on the first page of the almanac; and when as often as I looked out I thought was reminded as often as I looked out I was reminded as often as I looked out I was reminded as often as I looked out I was reminded as often as I looked out I was reminded as often as I looked out I was reminded as often as I looked out I was reminded as often as I looked out I was reminded of the fable of the lark and the reapers, or the parable of the sower, and such like things such like things such like things such like things such like things the like the like; the like; the like; and now they are all gone, and in 16 30 thirty thirty thirty thirty thirty thirty thirty days more, perchance perchance perchance perchance perchance perchance probably, probably, I shall look from the same window on the pure sky-blue sea-green sea-green sea-green sea-green sea-green sea-green sea-green Walden water there, reflecting the clouds and the trees, and sending up its evaporations in solitude, and no traces will appear that a man has ever stood there. Or I shall hear a solitary loon laugh as he dives and plumes himself there.—Perchance Or I shall see perchance a solitary lonely fisher in his boat—like a floating leaf—pursuing the contemplative man’s recreation, and beholding his form reflected in the waves there where lately a hundred men securely labored —or I shall hear a solitary loon laugh as he dives and plumes himself there. Perhaps I shall hear a solitary loon laugh as he dives and plumes himself, or shall see a lonely fisher in his boat, like a floating leaf, beholding his form reflected in the waves, where lately a hundred men securely labored. Perhaps I shall hear a solitary loon laugh as he dives and plumes himself, or shall see a lonely fisher in his boat, like a floating leaf, beholding his form reflected in the waves, where lately a hundred men securely labored. Perhaps I shall hear a solitary loon laugh as he dives and plumes himself, or shall see a lonely fisher in his boat, like a floating leaf, beholding his form reflected in the waves, where lately a hundred men securely labored. Perhaps I shall hear a solitary loon laugh as he dives and plumes himself, or shall see a lonely fisher in his boat, like a floating leaf, beholding his form reflected in the waves, where lately a hundred men securely labored. Perhaps I shall hear a solitary loon laugh as he dives and plumes himself, or shall see a lonely fisher in his boat, like a floating leaf, beholding his form reflected in the waves, where lately a hundred men securely labored. Perhaps I shall hear a solitary loon laugh as he dives and plumes himself, or shall see a lonely fisher in his boat, like a floating leaf, beholding his form reflected in the waves, where lately a hundred men securely labored. Perhaps I shall hear a solitary loon laugh as he dives and plumes himself, or shall see a lonely fisher in his boat, like a floating leaf, beholding his form reflected in the waves, where lately a hundred men securely labored.
21
The Pond in Winter 21 written: A

(Ronald Clapper)
Thus it appears that the sweltering inhabitants of Charleston and New Orleans & Havanna Jamaica New Orleans, New Orleans, New Orleans, New Orleans, New Orleans, New Orleans, New Orleans, of Madras and Bombay and Calcutta, drink at my well. In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous and cosmogonal philosophy of the Bhagvat Geeta, since whose composition years of the gods have elapsed, and in comparison with which this our our our our our our our our modern world and its literature seem puny and trivial; and I doubt if these things are that philosophy is not to be referred to another a previous state of existence than this of ours —so remote are that religion & is its sublimity from our age & that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our conceptions. I lay down the book and go to my well for water, and lo! there I meet the servant of the Brahmin, priest of Brahma and Vishnu and Indra, who still sit sits sits sits sits sits sits sits sits in his temple on the Ganges reading the Vedas, the descendant of the religious devotee who once dwelt at the roots of trees or dwells at the root of a tree or dwells at the root of a tree or dwells at the root of a tree or dwells at the root of a tree or dwells at the root of a tree or dwells at the root of a tree or dwells at the root of a tree or dwells at the root of a tree with his crust and water jug. I meet his servant come to draw water for his master, and our buckets as it were as it were as it were as it were as it were as it were as it were as it were grate together in the same well. The pure Walden water is mingled with the sacred water of the Ganges. With favoring winds it is wafted past the site of the fabulous islands of Atlantis and the islands of the Hesperides. It Hesperides, Hesperides, Hesperides, Hesperides, Hesperides, Hesperides, Hesperides, makes the periplus of Hanno, and, floating by Ternate and Tidore and the mouth of the Persian Gulf, melts in the tropic gales of the Indian seas, and is landed in ports of which Alexander heard only only heard only heard only heard only heard only heard only heard only heard the names.

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